Yaser Narimanpour Maleki1, Shabnam Namdar Akbari2, Nader Ghaemi2,  
Somayyeh Omranifar2  
1Young Researchers and Elite Club, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran  
2Department of Architecture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University Tabriz, Iran  
ABSTRACT: The issue of energy in our country has not received considerable  
attention for years, however, in recent years, designers and planners sought to focus on  
the subject of the optimization of energy consumption in one of the major centers of  
Research Article  
energy consumption, that is building, due to the high cost of energy consumption and  
the concern about the depletion of these energy resources and the pollution arising  
PII: S238315532000003-9  
from consuming these fuels. Meanwhile, tall buildings consume a large portion of non-  
renewable energy resources. Due to the construction of high-rise buildings, growing  
urban population, and limited proper land, designers should seek to reduce its negative  
environmental effects instead of rejecting it. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention  
to sustainable architectural strategies in the process of designing and the exploitation  
stage of these buildings because of the accumulation of users at a limited level the  
significant use of energy resources in tall buildings. This paper attempts to analyze the  
effective elements in sustainable architecture in the design of high-rise buildings in  
Tabriz to reduce energy consumption. This study is of quantitative nature and data was  
collected using archive or library study. The findings of this research highlight that  
observing the effective components of sustainable architecture in the design of  
towering buildings contributes to saving energy consumption for space heating by  
66%, and saving energy consumption for space cooling by 37.5 %.  
Received: 15 May, 2020  
Revised: 12 June, 2020  
Published: 15 June, 2020  
Corresponding author’s E-mail:  
KEYWORDS: Sustainability, Climate, Energy Consumption, High-Rise Buildings  
consumed energy. For the meantime, among the  
components of energy consumption in the building,  
Considering the statistics related to the high rate of  
urbanization all over the world, especially in  
developing countries as well as Iran, it could be  
estimated that, in the next 20 years, about 60% of  
the world’s population will live in cities.  
This number in Iran has been predicted to be  
70%. The addition of each household to the urban  
population has different consequences, the most  
important of which is the provision of housing [1].  
The issue of high-rise buildings is also at the  
beginning of a great transformation. Today, the  
crisis of housing quality has overcome the issue of  
quantity crisis, which is due to the adoption of  
policies to solve the problem of housing like  
constructing buildings “as fast as possible”, “as small  
as possible”, and “as cheap as possible”, that are high  
on the agenda [2].  
the heating systems of buildings that mainly use  
fossil fuels, are among the major consumers of  
energy, so that 70% percent of natural gas consumed  
in buildings is spent on heating [3]. Also, in large  
cities, 30% percent of air pollution is generated from  
buildings. So, our environment is being harmed and  
is moving in an unpleasant direction [4].  
On sustainable development and, of course,  
sustainable architecture, it has become clear that  
every building must interact with its natural  
environment. The controversial and considerable  
part of this issue is how to establish the interaction  
and also the type of measures considered. Given the  
cold and dry climate Tabriz, designing buildings  
should be done in a way that we can use natural  
energies to the maximum, and thus we can direct the  
criteria of a building towards sustainability [5]. This  
study, first, discussed the issue of sustainable  
architecture and its principles. Then, the climatic  
On the other hand, in our country, energy  
consumption in buildings amounts to 40% of total  
Citation: Narimanpour Maleki Y, Namdar Akbari Sh,  
Ghaemi N, Omranifar S (2020). The Qualitative Analysis  
of the Effective Components of Sustainable Architecture  
in the Design of High-rise Buildings in order to Reduce  
Energy Consumption in Tabriz. J. Art Arch. Stud., 9 (1):  
Journal of Art and Architecture Studies  
ISSN 2383-1553  
J. Art Arch. Stud. 9(1): 14-22, June 15, 2020  
J Art Arch Stud. 9(1): 14-22, 2020  
design strategies of high-rise buildings in accordance  
2. Optimizing the use of resources and  
with the cold and mountainous climate of Tabriz minimizing the use of natural resources in a  
city, and the impact of these strategies on reducing proportion that is less than their natural growth.  
fossil fuel consumption will be studied and analyzed.  
3. Minimum production of waste and pollution  
The aim of this study is to explain the design models that can be absorbed on a scale and capacity ranging  
of large buildings consistent with the cold and from the environment to world.  
mountainous climate of Tabriz to reduce energy  
4. Providing basic human and Social needs and  
creating healthy environment for future  
Hypothesis: there is a feature in sustainable generations [7].  
architecture that has led to reduced energy  
consumption in massive buildings.  
The great land of Iran is one of the few countries  
Research question: How and using what  
strategies will architectures reduce energy that has provided a unique type of architectural  
consumption in high-rise buildings?  
culture to the world architecture during its history.  
Important cultural and geographical features of Iran  
have made for a great variety in its architecture [8].  
The formation of housing is subject to cultural,  
To create a cohesive foundation, data in this climatic, economical, and subsistence factors and  
quantitative research has been gathered based on conditions [9].  
library study and field research and this study deals  
Studying the history of housing, it could be  
with analyzing effective components of sustainable found out that human beings have inevitably  
architecture in designing high-rise buildings to adapted themselves and their living space to climatic  
reduce energy consumption in Tabriz.  
and cultural conditions. It could be found out that  
three important factors constituting the primary  
man-made shelters include the climate in which they  
Sustainable architecture  
Today, the issue of sustainable development is lived, the type of material that they had access to,  
considered to be one of the most fascinating and and predicting and developing methods to prevent  
common discussions at the international level. The dangers that might threaten them [10].  
extensive and scholarly discussion on this topic led  
In the second meeting on human housing which  
to the opening of The United Nations Conference on took place in Istanbul, favourable housing has been  
Sustainable Development, also known as Earth defined as follows: desirable shelter does not simply  
Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  
mean a roof over the head of each person, rather it  
This conference was later called Rio Summit in means desirable comfort, desirable space, physical  
which a resolution was issued to offer strategies for access and greater security, ownership security,  
the sustainable development of countries around the stability, construct durability, proper lightening,  
world [5]. This is the most important definition of ventilation, and heating system as well as proper  
sustainable design presented at the Rio Summit: basic infrastructures such as water supply, hygiene,  
sustainable design is a kind of design that aims to fill good environmental quality, and suitable place in  
the current needs without damaging the resources of terms of work and basic facilities all of which need to  
future generations. In sustainable design, the socio- be provided according to the people’s affordability  
economical sustainability should be considered just [11].  
like the degree of energy consumption and the  
environmental effect of buildings and cities [6].  
Climatic design  
The term ‘implementing climatic design’ is used  
to refer to specific construction techniques the aim  
The principles of sustainable architecture  
To achieve sustainable development, the of which is to reduce heating and cooling costs using  
following strategies and principles should be natural energy flows to create comfort conditions in  
1. Using and sustaining the consumption of reduce the overall energy costs of a building and  
renewable resources (sun and wind). creates better comfort conditions for buildings [12].  
buildings. Climatic design is a method that is used to  
Table 1. The table of literature review in order of historical sequence  
Narimanpour Maleki et al., 2020  
The title of research  
The national Building  
regulations of Iran.  
In addition to the location of building, it is necessary to observe  
other factors such as the installation of controlled entrances, the  
use of rough textures and dark colors to cover the exterior  
surface of buildings and reducing the area of opening surfaces.  
The formation and direction of building shell should be in such a  
way that it can absorb maximum radiation in winter.  
Desirable and proper housing must have these characteristics:  
the possibility of interacting with environment: buildings should  
be designed so that the need for artificial regulators of  
environmental conditions be reduced to the minimum.  
features of desirable  
building (the basics  
of design the ways to  
achieve it)  
High-rise buildings consume large amount of non-renewable  
of energy resources and are regarded as one of the most non-  
Designing High-rise ecological buildings. Given the need to construct towering  
buildings, designers should seek to reduce its negative  
environmental effects instead of ruling it out.  
The analysis and processing research was from the point of view of author.  
Tabriz climate  
Building shell design arrangements; 4) Mechanical  
Tabriz is the center of Eastern Azerbaijan heating system.  
province which is located at approximately 46  
degrees 25 minutes east longitude, 38 degrees 2  
minutes north latitude from Greenwich Meridian.  
The elevation of Tabriz is 1340 m [17]. Among the  
climatic characteristics of Tabriz, we can refer to its  
bitter and long winters, and for several months of  
the year, the earth is covered with ice and snow.  
Rainfall is low in summer due to mountain range in  
western Iran, which, as  
barrier, prevents  
Mediterranean air from entering Iran and retains  
moisture in its hillside. Rainfall in winters is mostly  
in the form of snow, and in general, in the region,  
short spring separates winter and summer from each  
other. Examining temperature information in  
Tabriz, it could be found that 62% of the time the  
weather is cold and very cold, and 17% of the time  
the weather is hot and basically the weather is not  
very hot, and 21% of the time the weather is mild  
[18]. Figure 1 shows the range of need for shade and  
sun in different months of the year in Tabriz. This  
figure supports that buildings in Tabriz need shade  
in the hours of the day in the months of June, July,  
August, and September, and need sun in the other  
months of the year.  
Figure 1. The calendar of need for shade and sun  
Landscape design arrangements  
Landscaping using trees and plants can reduce  
energy consumption for heating and cooling. In this  
method, by the shading of trees, the ability of trees  
to direct the flow of air as well as by the evaporation  
of plants, inactive and cooling can be created. Using  
careful landscaping and design ideas, we can be  
influential in the optimization of energy  
consumption and energy storage, especially at the  
height of summer and winter. Studies on the  
analysis of the energy consumption of households  
Climatic design measures for high-rise  
buildings in Tabriz to reduce energy  
Climatic design measures for housing in cold  
climate includes the following: 1) Landscape design  
arrangements; 2) Building design arrangements; 3)  
J Art Arch Stud. 9(1): 14-22, 2020  
suggest that landscaping helped reduce energy outside the building reduce energy consumption for  
heating spaces by 20% [22].  
consumption by 25% for heating, and by 50% for  
cooling [19]. Landscape design measures in winter  
and summer have been shown in Table 3.  
Table 2. Landscape design measures in winter and  
summer [19].  
Landscape design  
Evergreen trees in the northern and  
winter wind  
eastern sides of the building slow  
down the wind and create a layer of  
thermal insulation  
Trees that shed their leaves, reduce  
indoor temperature in summer and  
increase it in winter on the south  
and southwest fronts of the  
Using plants to create  
shade in summer  
Figure 3. semi-protected areas outside the building  
- preventing summer sunlight and keeping sun heat  
in winter [12].  
Building design measures  
Placing building deep in the ground  
Harsh weather conditions in the basement can  
be significantly stabilized and mitigated, and this  
can barely be considered as an advantage for  
underground buildings. In fact, below the depth of  
1.5 to 2 ft (45 to 61 cm), not much of daily  
temperature changes are noticeable [12]. With more  
building coverage by land, the building can be  
protected from the air. In surface structures, up to  
35% of heat loss can often be due to air penetration  
Figure 4. the numbers indicate that the amount of  
cubic feet of air entering the building is the result of  
opening the door once [21].  
Using vestibule at the entrance of the  
Under normal winter conditions, while doors  
and windows are closed, air infiltration will increase  
the building’s thermal load by 1.3 times. Heat loss  
through air penetration will reach about 75% of the  
total thermal load of the building. Vestibule design  
in the part of the building that faces the north wind,  
will also be of high value. Although, an attempt must  
be made not to put the entrance door in this part of  
the building [12].  
Figure. 2. More coverage of building by land [21].  
Semi-protected areas outside the building  
Patios, porches, and enclosed areas outside the  
house contribute to the comfort of the interior space  
and function as a private space. The protrusion in  
front of the roof and porches in summer casts a  
shadow over walls, openings, and the area around  
the building, and this helps keep the air temperature  
outside the building down. These outdoor spaces are  
also beneficial in winter. Buildings can be designed  
to create a series of solar boxes next to the building.  
These boxes can keep the air around the house warm  
by using sun’s heat which will not only increase the  
length of time the building’s outdoor space is used,  
but also will help create a warmer environment, and  
so the building’s heat loss will be reduced. Plants,  
outdoor walls and even greenhouse can be used for  
this purpose [12]. These semi-protected areas  
Building shell design arrangements  
Shell is also an efficient component in design  
and faces three general methods with buildings  
shells to achieve proper design with climatic  
1. Shell as the separator of building from the  
outside climatic conditions through thermal  
resistance (insulation).  
2. Shell as thermal mass (delaying the  
conduction of heat through the body of the building)  
Narimanpour Maleki et al., 2020  
3. Shell as the storage and distributor of heat  
in the building [22].  
2. Using double-glazed or multiple-glazed  
walls with an empty space between two shells, is a  
method to avoid heat loss [23].  
Using double-glazed windows  
3. Using proper materials with high capacity  
Windows are more vulnerable to unwanted heat and thermal insulation is one of the solutions that  
transfer than any other element in the building shell. can be used to prevent outer cold air [23].  
The thermal resistance of normal glass is much less  
than that of insulated walls. The thermal resistance insulation on the exterior shell of the building.  
of double-glazed windows is 1.2 times that of single- 5. To prevent evaporative freezing in the  
glazed windows [12]. Double-glazed windows help to building shell in cold and mountainous climate,  
4. Maintaining heat by placing thermal  
reduce energy consumption by 37%.  
vapor barrier needs to be installed in the warm side  
of the building shell insulation [24].  
6. Minimizing the number and area of  
openings and using materials with lower heat  
transfer coefficient for window frames.  
7. Using night insulation for windows (night  
insulation is a thick screen that is pulled into the  
interior wall of windows during the night to prevent  
heat dissipation). Thick screens help reduce heat  
transfer by 4 to 8 percent, thus reducing energy  
consumption [25].  
Figure 5. Double-glazed window [29]  
1. Reducing the speed of  
indoor and outdoor heat  
For rooms  
used during  
cold nights  
Thick screen  
2. Camouflage inside at night  
3. Reducing natural light  
Source: Razjouyan [28]  
8. Building shell should not cast a shadow on  
itself (progress and regression should not be in the  
9. Using plants in the greenhouse space and its  
combination with building facade to absorb the heat  
of the sun from the outer space into indoor space  
10. Adding a new layer of materials in the  
details around entrances and windows and reducing  
the penetration of cold air and lowering energy  
consumption [27].  
Figure 6. The details of double-glazed wall with 11  
cm brickwork façade  
11. The exterior facade of building in the cold  
climate should be covered with dark colors.  
Therefore, it will absorb more thermal energy [28].  
The following table shows the percentage of the  
thermal absorption of various kinds of colors:  
The insulation of exterior walls of the  
building and the proper design of openings  
To achieve the goals of sustainable architecture  
and the design of building’s shells with the climatic  
approach, observing the following points can be  
1. The direction of the building is one of the  
serious issues for using sunlight in winter in cold  
and mountainous climates. To reduce energy  
consumption, the design based on inactive system is  
influential [23].  
The percentage of thermal  
Percentage of thermal  
absorption capacity  
Brown, green, and red  
Light beige and white  
Metalic (dark metalic)  
Metalic (bright metalic)  
Completely bright metalic  
Rouhani M, [30].  
J Art Arch Stud. 9(1): 14-22, 2020  
12. Using photovoltaic cells in building facade  
and roof and its combination with building structure  
is a method to provide sufficient heat in the building  
from solar energy [29] Observing the mentioned  
items will reduce energy loss by 29& in the walls,  
and 14% in the openings, thus reducing the  
consumption of fossil fuels [27].  
Green roof  
The contemporary method of roof greenery,  
known as green roof, represents a space where grass  
and plants are planted at a shallower depth of soil.  
Green roof is a space with a vegetation cover that is  
structurally combined with any man-made structure.  
The word ‘roof’ in this term is used to refer to any  
continuous surface whether with open or closed  
walls that has been designed for protecting residents  
[35]. Green roof system is a branch of sustainable  
architecture with many economical goals including  
increasing insulation by 25% and saving energy [26].  
Figure 8. the ventilation and cooling of attic space  
by the protrusion of roof edge and holes under the  
arch [12].  
Figure 9. The details of sloping green roof [22].  
Figure 7. the constituting elements of green roof  
Mechanical heating system  
Underfloor heating system saves energy by 25%  
to 30% compared with conventional heating systems  
like radiator, or fan coil. The reasons for this are  
extremely large radiation levels (equal to the area of  
heated space), low water temperature circulating in  
underfloor heating system (between 35% to 50% ºC),  
low heat exchange between floor and cold walls,  
even distribution of heat throughout the surface and  
space, and avoiding problems with radiator  
including its blackness, clogging, decay and finally  
problems related to repairing and maintaining it.  
Using this thermal method, warm weather in the  
environment will be very desirable and uniform  
because hot air is lighter than cold air and heat is  
always transferred from bottom to top. Thus, it  
would be better to heat the ambient air from lower  
level (floor) [29].  
Using the space under sloping roof as a  
storage space between indoor and outdoor  
The attic floor must be well insulated to prevent  
heat loss from the attic and also to prevent roof  
heating which melts snow. Due to the heat  
absorption from the south side of sloping roof, the  
temperature of this room is also increased which  
causes snow to melt on the north side of the roof and  
also creates an ice dam. This room should be  
properly ventilated to prevent this as well as  
perspiration. The protrusion of roof edge and holes  
under the arch are suitable for ventilation and for  
keeping attic space cool [12]. The thermal insulation  
of roof reduces heat loss by 26%, and so cuts down  
fossil fuels consumption [25].  
Narimanpour Maleki et al., 2020  
Figure 10. proper and ideal mode in  
underfloor heating system and improper mode in  
radiator and fan coil heating systems  
Wind energy  
Using wind energy in high-rise buildings has  
higher efficiency than low buildings due to the  
considerable height of these constructions and the  
high speed and intensity of wind. Using this energy  
in the natural ventilation of high-rise buildings  
(atrium) and also in the generation of electricity by  
means of wind turbines, is among the strategies used  
in these buildings for sustainability [16].  
Chart 1. The increased wind density in different  
heights. Source [30].  
The level of reduced  
energy consumption  
This study attempted to analyze the effective  
components of sustainable architecture in the design  
of high-rise buildings to reduce energy consumption  
in Tabriz so that it can deal with the effect of the  
above-mentioned models on reducing fossil fuels  
consumption and environment sustainability. The  
following table shows sustainability models in the  
design of high-rise buildings in cold and dry climate  
and the effect of these models on reducing fossil  
fuels consumption for heating buildings.  
Thus, today, considering the air pollution in  
cities and environmental issues resulting from using  
non-renewable energy resources, the design of high-  
rise buildings should be reconsidered. Given the data  
mentioned in Table 6, it could be found that by  
observing sustainability models in the design of  
towering buildings in cold climate, we can:  
- the reduced  
- Using plants next  
consumption of heating  
to the exterior walls  
by 25% and of cooling by  
of buildings  
- locating building  
deep in the ground  
- using vestibule in  
- designing semi-  
protected areas  
outside building  
- reduced heat loss by 35%  
- reduced heat loss by 15%  
through air permeation  
- reduced energy  
consumption by 20%  
- reduced heat loss by 37%  
compared with single-  
glazed windows  
- reduced energy  
consumption by 29%  
- reduced energy  
consumption by 26%  
- increased insulation  
level by 25%  
- using double-  
glazed windows  
- insulating the  
exterior walls of  
- insulating roofs  
- green roof system  
- proper design of  
Do modeling for high-rise spaces to achieve  
climate-friendly architectural concepts  
- reduced energy  
Save energy for heating spaces by 66%  
Save energy for cooling spaces by 37.5%.  
consumption by 14%  
- reduced sunlight by 20%  
to 25% and reduced heat  
transfer by 4% to 8%  
- indoor canopies  
The following suggestion are, thus, provided in  
addition to those mentioned in the above table, to  
re-examine high-rise buildings design and to save  
more energy in consuming fossil fuels for heating  
buildings in winter:  
- reduced energy  
- underfloor  
heating system  
consumption by 30%  
compared with other  
mechanical systems  
Table 6. Climatic design arrangements and proper  
mechanical system to reduce energy consumption.  
(the analysis and processing of the research by  
1. Using  
environmentally-friendly materials  
2. Designing a narrow and elongated form of  
the building along the east-west axis  
J Art Arch Stud. 9(1): 14-22, 2020  
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3. Designing openings in the southern facade  
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cold side of building in winter, and using coniferous  
trees against cold winds  
5. Minimizing openings in eastern and western  
6. Using south porches as canopies against  
sunlight in summer  
7. Working out the depth of canopy given the  
angle of radiation of the sun in winter and summer  
8. Using greenhouse space in the southern side  
of building  
9. Locating main spaces like bedroom, living  
room, and dining room in the southern side  
The presence of corridors in the northern side of  
the building as the intermediate space between main  
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Competing interests  
The authors declare that there is no competing  
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