Zahra Farzaneh and Shabnam Akbari Namdar2  
1PhD Student in Architecture, Department of Architecture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University of Tabriz, Iran  
2Assistant Professor, Department of Architecture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University of Tabriz, Iran  
ABSTRACT: With an increased level of salty and saline land in the region around  
Lake Urmia followed by powerful winds and the creation of salt dust, the agricultural  
lands of the region progressively move towards salinization and eventually  
Research Article  
desertification. Environmental adverse effects of salt dust in the dried areas of the lake,  
PII: S238315531900004-8  
which is the chief source of this problem, can be minimized by drainage. In more  
detail, by continual or sporadic flooding methods or by sprinkler irrigation and  
precipitation, soluble salts can be washed from saline soil profiles. Object-oriented  
image analysis (OBIA) techniques are one of the latest means of satellite image  
processing in the scope of remote sensing. These techniques have significant potential  
in soil science studies. The application of soil improvers to advance the physical and  
structural characteristics of the soil is quite common. This study is of review and  
descriptive type, and the collection of resources in this study was a library method and  
by reviewing Internet resources. The results of this research suggest relevant  
architectural and urban design solutions to reduce physical vulnerability to storms. In  
this respect, solutions have been given.  
Received: 22 Sep. 2019  
Revised: 30 Nov. 2019  
Published: 15 Dec. 2019  
Corresponding author’s E-mail:  
KEYWORDS: Salt Storm, Architectural Solutions, Soil Improvers, Climate  
Near the year, phenomena influence the movement  
of water in the soil and are a function of factors such  
Natural and synthetic processes are currently critical  
threats to aquatic ecosystems and objects. Mainly  
due to mismanagement of water use in the basin and  
reduced access to the lake, Lake Urmia, the world's  
second-largest salt lake in northwestern Iran, is  
drying up. The lake's water level has been declining  
rapidly since the mid-1990s. Meanwhile, the  
construction of fifty dams and diversion structures  
driving climate change, are the principal reasons for  
this. The creation of a 15-kilometer road in the  
middle of the lake's Street is another reason that  
stops the normal circulation in the lake. The  
situation has become severe over the past two  
decades, and the need for restoration is an essential  
priority for the region. The contribution of ten main  
rivers to pour into the lake is considered as the  
ultimate solution to this disaster. However, the  
biggest challenge associated with any restoration  
program is public awareness and information about  
environmental values. Environmental adverse  
effects of salt dust in the dried areas of the lake,  
which is the chief source of this problem, can be  
minimized by drainage. Hitherto, drainage has only  
meant discharging excess water from the ground.  
Obviously, this has been done in dry and semi-arid  
regions, along with the extraction of excess salt from  
the soil. Salinity and wetlands are related  
as climatic conditions and soil characteristics [1].  
Optimization of saline soils usually starts with the  
downward displacement of accrued salts on the  
surface, and the restoration of these soils by  
interruption of capillary ascent flow has also been  
studied [2].  
In developed countries, due to the attention of these  
countries to environmental protection and the  
existence of governmental and non-governmental  
institutions, the destructive effects of human  
activities and environmental degradation are low  
and limited. These environmental harms and  
damages happen in different manners in different  
environments such as seas and lakes, jungles, cities,  
villages, and other spaces. Meantime, the  
elimination of water resources (sea, lake, swamp,  
river, spring, etc.) due to the direct dependence of  
human life on them and the preparation of human  
water needs, are of supreme importance. Wetlands  
are worthy ecosystems that have a broad variety of  
functions among many types of natural ecosystems.  
In addition to protecting biodiversity, they further  
have multiple other natural, economic, and social  
values. Economic researches prove that a wetland  
has about ten times the economic value of forests  
and 200 times the economic value of arable lands  
Citation: Farzaneh Z and Akbari Namdar Sh (2019).  
Architectural solutions to reduce the effects of salt  
storms. J. Art Arch. Stud., 8 (2): 19-29.  
Journal of Art and Architecture Studies  
ISSN 2383-1553  
J. Art Arch. Stud. 8(2): 19-29, Dec 15, 2019  
Farzaneh and Akbari Namdar, 2019  
Lake Urmia and its environment  
and affluent biological parts and natural ecosystems  
It is the twentieth largest lake in the world and of the country. For this reason, the obligation to  
the second after the Dead Sea in terms of salinity. Its preserve natural habitats, not only in officially  
maximum depth is 16 meters, and its average depth protected ranges but in the entire natural  
is 5 meters. The average length of this lake is about environment of Lake Urmia, which entails sensitive  
140 km, and its width is between 16 and 63 km. Also, and vulnerable ecosystems, seems inevitable. These  
its approximate volume is estimated at 31 billion ecosystems are quite fragile and vulnerable to  
cubic meters. The water of this lake is chiefly fed by natural and synthetic changes. That is why making  
14 permanent rivers including Zarrinehrood (41%), any environmental disturbance without factoring in  
Siminehrood (11%), Godar (8%), Barandooz (6%), the special features in them, will have a destructive  
Shahrchai (2%), Nazlouchai (6%), plus 7seasonal and adverse result. If the ecological balance is upset,  
rivers, 39 flood streams, springs within the lake, and the reproducibility is very restricted, and it is quite  
direct rain and snow. The lake was registered on the challenging to return them to their original state. In  
UNESCO World Heritage List (1967). It is also terms of salinity, this lake has unique ecological and  
registered as one of the international wetlands climatic conditions for the settlement of specific  
(registered in the Ramsar Convention) [4].  
plant and animal species. Insofar as the  
development of valuable habitats in this area has  
improved biodiversity. Environmental standards,  
such as excess consumption of freshwater for  
agriculture in the coastal spaces around the lake,  
contamination of water and soil resources by many  
industrial pollutants, agriculture and urban  
wastewater and construction of a passageway in the  
lake, without evaluating the adverse environmental  
results, have altered the hydrological and  
hydrodynamic processes of Lake Urmia. The results  
confirm that if this trend remains without optimal  
environmental management, we will shortly observe  
the disappearance of ecological, economic, tourism,  
social, and aesthetic indicators of the lake. This is  
currently befalling with drought and human  
intrusion on the natural environment of the lake.  
Additionally, as a result of the interaction of  
increasing lake water salinity and overfishing, a large  
part of Artemia crustacean has been lost. These  
results are a serious alarm for the failure of  
maintenance management and unsustainable  
exploitation of worthy natural ecosystems of Lake  
Figure 1. Urmia Lake  
Urmia Lake is one of the most important  
international wetlands that has come to the brink of  
elimination in recent years for many factors,  
including the implementation of development  
projects. The adverse situation of Lake Urmia began  
a decade ago and is getting more critical day by day.  
Insofar as with this current trend, the possibility of  
total drying in the Urmia Lake in the following few  
years is not far from expectation. Lake Urmia's basin  
has been suffering droughts and consecutive dryness  
for at least a decade. Also, this basin is located in the  
construction place of different water structures in  
the form of dams, dikes, and bridges. These dams  
have been built without consideration of the copious  
droughts and lakes. This has led to the expansion of  
agriculture in the upper reaches of the rivers.  
Because of natural and man-made factors, this  
upstream prosperity has born the gradual drying up  
of the lake. The consequences of this problem in the  
succeeding few years will display in the form of  
disturbance of biological foundations in the area,  
urban and rural settlements, salinity of agricultural  
soils, and the emergence of one of the dust centers in  
the northwest of the country [5].  
societies and the development of polluting  
According to examinations conducted in 2007,  
the human population in the Lake Urmia basin was  
approximately 4913553 people. Of these, 69% lived  
in urban regions, and the remaining 31% dwelled in  
rural spaces. The higher urban population statistics  
show the huge capacity for changes in the ecosystem  
of the region by human and manufacturing factors.  
Because the quantity of pollutants in urban areas is  
more than in rural ones. Parallel with the event of  
drought, rapid, and uncontrolled population  
increase in arid and semi-arid zones is likewise one  
Considering the high biodiversity and the  
presence of different habitats in this basin, it can be  
assumed that this area is one of the most significant  
J Art Arch Stud. 8(2): 19-29, 2019  
of the critical obstacles to achieving sustainable As the salt dries when exposed to air at a pressure  
development. The impact of this factor on water below the unit stability limit, the salt breaks down  
resources management is also quite grave and into a powder and disperses rapidly into the  
alarming. Because on the one hand, it raises water encompassing areas. The expanse of salt along with  
consumption and water supply services and, on the water, wind and other dispersing agents, on the one  
other hand, because of increasing the volume of hand, causes the development of saline areas, and on  
domestic and municipal wastewater and industrial the other hand, with the impact of salt on vegetation,  
process effluents and agricultural drainage water, it animals and even humans, cause the loss and  
generates many problems and issues in managing reduction of living conditions in the area. The  
environmental quality and especially sustainable expanse of the salt desert happens at a very high  
management of water and soil resources [6].  
rate, and its influence on soil and the climate is  
much more critical than the impact of deserts in  
central Iran. The expansion of the salt desert by the  
Pollution from port activities  
Other significant sources of pollution in Lake salt storm resulting from the constant drying of Lake  
Urmia is port activities. There are major ports in Urmia has the potential to destroy 1,200 square  
Lake Urmia, the most important of which include kilometers. Due to the crystallographic lattice and  
the Sharafkhaneh port in Shabestar city, salty cleavage, this mineral is very easy to crush and  
Golmankhaneh port on the west coast of Urmia (20 powder. Following leaving the water, salt deposits  
km from Urmia city), Rahmanloo port in Maragheh are exposed to erosion and are moved as particles  
city, and Aq Gonbad port in Eslamy Island. Different with the wind. Therefore, with the wind blowing, a  
activities in ports contaminate the water of Lake salt storm forms in the area and affects a very broad  
area (around 1200 km) in the shortest time. This  
transfer is reported to improve and expand the salt  
The impact of salt dust and its desert, hence destroying the biological system.  
environmental results  
The drought of Lake Urmia causes the  
precipitation of salt sediments and the rise of a  
suitable bed for the creation of dangerous fine dust  
during harsh storms. Considering that the direction  
of the prevailing winds in the region is in the  
direction of southwest, west, and southeast, the  
possibility of political-security damage to the coastal  
cities of the eastern to northeastern and even  
Figure 2. The volume of water consumption in various  
northwestern shores of Lake Urmia due to salt  
storms is very high. Field studies and conversations  
with the natives dwelling in the Gorchin Qaleh and  
Qal Qachi regions indicate the existence of this  
destructive phenomenon. Lake Urmia is the second  
parts of Lake Urmia basin (http://ulrp.sharif.ir)  
Surely, one of the most critical concerns  
following the regression and drought of a large part  
of Lake Urmia is becoming one of the active centers  
of salt dust in the area. The irreversible  
consequences of this matter will appear in the not  
too distant future. The figure displays areas of the  
country within a radius of 75 km, 100 km, and 500  
km from the lake. Regrettably, if this lake becomes  
one of the active centers of dust production, a  
notable population will be exposed to the menace of  
dust created by the drought of Lake Urmia [7].  
Desertification is additionally one of the most critical  
dangers caused by the regression of a notable area of  
Lake Urmia. In fact, the hurtful experience of Lake  
Aral proves that the transformation of Lake Urmia  
into the desert of Urmia cannot be far from the  
Supersaturated solutions are sensitive to the  
slightest changes. These solutions are converted to  
saturated solutions with the slightest change in  
conditions and precipitate huge quantities of solutes.  
This law of chemistry, with the least change in  
conditions, causes the deposition of various salts  
(gypsum and anhydrite  
- halite and Sylvite,  
Carnallite, etc.). This causes the precipitation of salt  
sediments in the lake bed. This phenomenon (salt  
precipitation) decreases the volume of the lake and  
regresses the waterline of the lake. Meanwhile, with  
this regression, saline areas with a deep salt layer  
(salt precipitation) expand. Based on the  
crystallographic system and mineralogical system,  
Farzaneh and Akbari Namdar, 2019  
warm seasons, the impact of the lake in creating a  
Winds are one of the climatic factors whose breeze is more prominent. In fall, the direction of  
direction, amount, and intensity are effective in this relocation is east-west, while in winter, the wind  
climate change and precipitation. The maximum blowing from the west is quite striking. In general,  
mentioned frequency of wind in Urmia station is the main direction of the wind is from the west.  
30%, blowing from the west. Insofar as the west  
The local winds that blow in the Urmia area are  
wind can be considered the dominant wind in the as follows:  
area. Winds blowing from the northeast, north, and - Salmas winds: This wind blows in a north-south  
southeast are in the next places in terms of wind direction and in Urmia, it is known as Salmas  
frequency with 13.6, 13, and 10.7%, respectively. (north) wind.  
Rainfall is normally concentrated in the months - White and black winds: blows in the opposite  
when westerly winds are prevailing. In spring, the direction of the north-south wind and is known  
intensity and span of winds are higher. Next, in locally as "Aq Yel" (white wind).  
summer, autumn, and winter, and eventually in - Land-sea breeze: This wind is sensible owing to the  
spring, a relative balance is set between the east and pressure difference between land and lake, and  
west winds. Lake Urmia additionally helps to during the day, its direction is from the lake to land,  
relocate surface masses by creating several breezes while at night, it is from land to sea  
during the day and night. Particularly in mild and (Http://tarrahi1.blogfa.com/post/60).  
Figure 3.  
J Art Arch Stud. 8(2): 19-29, 2019  
Climate indicators  
storms. Owing to the prevailing winds in the region,  
Solar Index. is a coefficient based on which which are in the southwest-west-southeast direction,  
the amount of building use of solar radiant energy is the probability of harm to the coastal cities of the  
defined (National Building Regulations of Iran, eastern to northeastern and even northwestern  
Article 19).  
banks of Lake Urmia due to salt storms is quite high.  
The effect of wind on the feeling of The phenomenon of salt storms will further induce  
comfort. In general, wind can affect human the destruction of agricultural lands and the  
comfort in open urban spaces in two chief ways. incidence of diseases like asthma, cancer, etc.  
First, through the physical impacts it has on human  
activities and is made by wind pressure on the  
human body; And second, through the influence on villagers are poorer and also do not have the  
the temperature sensed by the human body. required knowledge to deal with the threats due to  
Poverty and unemployment. Since the  
Beaufort Index. The wind changes the feeling lack of literacy, their vulnerability is higher. When  
of comfort by applying pressure and force to humans confronting the crises, it is essential to be prepared  
and things in the open air. In this case, the higher and respond properly. In this regard, recognizing the  
the wind velocity, the greater the pressure on current situation, identifying hazards, assessing  
humans and things. Thus, its effects on people's risks, determining vulnerability, and intervening to  
comfort will be different. In different countries, lessen harm to communities is necessary. Because  
there are huge differences between the criteria used otherwise, the destruction caused by the disaster will  
to estimate the tolerance threshold.  
Penn Warden Index.  
increase promptly in the short term. According to  
the the FAO, with the drying up of Lake Chad, fishing  
relationship between human thermal comfort and decreased acutely, and as climate change and its  
atmospheric factors such as wind, temperature, and disastrous effects on agriculture in the region grew  
radiation, along with human factors such as clothing poverty and the spread of many diseases, people in  
and activity. Suitable and unsuitable winds of an the region were forced to move to other regions. It  
area can be identified based on meteorological has also been determined based on comparative  
information of the area [7].  
studies that the drop in the level of the Aral Sea has  
led to the elimination of fishing-related activities,  
The foremost reasons for the drying up of and the drying up and abandonment of the ports of  
Lake Urmia  
Moynaq in Uzbekistan and Aralsk in Kazakhstan.  
The causes and outcomes of the destruction or Further, the fishing industry in these two ports was  
drying up of lakes, which are mainly caused by demolished along with 60,000 jobs, incurring  
human interference or natural elements, in many irreversible economic and social costs. Lowered  
parts of the world are different. These consequences economic activities in the region will raise  
include economic, climatic, environmental, and unemployment, reduce the livelihood of indigenous  
recreational instability. Adverse consequences of this peoples, and thus increase poverty.  
happening include population perils, biodiversity  
Migration. Soleimani Ziveh [9]'s study in 2010  
loss, illness spread, habitat loss, climate change, reveals that the drying of Lake Urmia induces the  
plant and animal population decline, and the like destruction of thousands of hectares of agricultural  
land in the region of this lake. The least consequence  
1- Absence of coherent planning program for the of this is the unemployment and migration of almost  
entire basin of Lake Urmia  
3 million people in the provinces of East and West  
2- Abnormal dam construction  
3- Shahid Kalantari freeway in Urmia Lake  
Closing of conversion industries.  
different study by Hesami and Amini [10] in 2016  
explains that with the destruction of agricultural  
lands in the Urmia Lake basin, which happened due  
to the drying of deep wells in agricultural lands, the  
closure of 34 conversion factories in West Azerbaijan  
province alone will have irreversible effects in all  
areas of economic, industrial, social, and cultural,  
and will result in the forced emigration of villagers  
and marginalization around cities.  
Political-security outcomes of drying of  
Lake Urmia  
Library findings  
Salt storm threat. According to the  
researches of Urmia Lake Revive Headquarters, the  
dryness of the lake engenders the precipitation of  
salt sediments and the formation of a suitable bed  
for the formation of hazardous dust during harsh  
Farzaneh and Akbari Namdar, 2019  
investing in the tourism for this lake has faced  
Tourism: Numerous studies have been difficulties, and the construction of seaside tourism  
conducted about the impact of drying of Lake Urmia facilities in this domain no longer makes sense.  
on tourism in this area, which indicates that the  
tourism situation is worsening with the drying of  
Lake Urmia. Asghari Sar-Eskalrood with the Comparative studies directed on dried lakes in the  
cooperation of other researchers in 2014 [10] world and studies by researchers and Lake Urmia  
claimed that in addition to the natural environment, Rehabilitation Headquarters show that the spread of  
the drying of Lake Urmia influences the economic various illnesses in this area is probable with the  
and social environment of the region. Insofar as in drying up of Lake Urmia. Diseases include increased  
recent years, the continuation of the upward trend of neonatal mortality, low birth weight, late  
lake water depletion induces the destruction of pubescence, anemia, respiratory illnesses, immune  
resorts, recreational and household complexes, system deterioration, neurological and behavioral  
destruction of coastal infrastructure, unemployment changes,  
of local citizens and migration of inhabitants of investigations also prove the emergence of social  
villages along the lake, reducing tourist arrivals, anomalies, public distrust of government  
reducing income from the tourism industry and performance, difficulties in managing the regional  
ultimately demand pressure on nearby destinations. space, and ethnic, tribal, and marginalization  
With the regression of the water of Lake Urmia, conflicts.  
Table 1. Classification of influential variables based on experts' opinions  
Classification of the variables  
Economic issues  
Regional economy, regional employment, regional tourism  
Agriculture of the region (agriculture and horticulture), industry of the region, livestock and  
poultry breeding of the region, livestock and dairy products of the region, honey production  
in the region, health of poultry and livestock of the region, emergence of new uses, salt  
harvesting needed by industries  
Production area  
Political issues  
Natural issues  
Social issues  
Political crises  
Agricultural soils, rangelands, salt storms, dust, quick sands, saline and non-saline dust  
centers, water resources in and around the area (wells, springs, etc.), sunlight reflection  
(albedo), light radiation, radiation from salts and elements, local climate, the dominant  
ecosystem of the lake intrusion area, the ability of the area to become a national park  
Health of local residents (physical, mental), local people, farmers community  
Residential system  
Major issues  
Migration (village to city, out of province, etc.) Ruralization  
Toxic compounds, food chain  
Source: Research Findings (2017)  
The effectiveness of Gum Arabic and Use  
of Object-Oriented Fuzzy Technique in  
Improving Physico-Chemical Conditions of  
Saline Soils  
of the most influential and effective factors on soil  
quality while it has no instantaneous and rapid effect  
[11]. According to researchers, soil salinity has been  
suggested as an abnormal environmental hazard due  
The use of soil improvers to improve the to its effects on human life [12].  
physical and structural characteristics of the soil is  
But this working solution is limited because of  
quite common. Gum Arabic improves soil's the low quality of saline soils. Hence, other strategies  
biological properties even in saline soils. Such that it to increase soil quality are needed to better establish  
increases the soil respiration from -67 to 275 (1-day vegetation. In applied agriculture, there are soil  
CO2kg 2CO) in treated soils when the original modifiers that improve soil physical condition by  
respiration was 7 to 77 (MgCO2KG-1DAY-1). Gum being added to the soil. Such substances are termed  
arabic also developed the hydraulic conductivity of soil improvers. These materials can be synthesized  
the saturated soils and decreased the acidity of the or natural, organic, or inorganic. Other than  
test soils. Soil salinity, as one of the global and enhancing the physical condition of the soil, natural  
critical perils in arid and semi-arid zones [4], is one polymers also add much nutritional value to the soil.  
J Art Arch Stud. 8(2): 19-29, 2019  
Since they are natural, these materials can be more  
affordable than synthesized polymers [13]. Arabic  
gum, or acacia gum, is a hydrocolloid that produces  
a gelling property in the presence of water. It is a  
high molecular weight polysaccharide branched  
chain with calcium, magnesium, and potassium  
salts. This substance may be neutral or slightly acidic  
with a pH of 4.5-5.5 [13]. Because of the presence of  
hydroxyl groups in the gum and its hydrophilicity, it  
can condense viscosity or form a gelling or gel-like  
state in the environment it is present in [14].  
How to remove dandruff from stones and bricks  
- Abrasion of the surface  
- Hydrochloric acid  
- Washing with water and brush  
- Nano stone  
techniques are one of the new techniques of satellite  
image processing in the domain of remote sensing  
with significant potential in soil science  
investigations. In this respect, OBIA is recognized as  
a method that mixes the spectral and spatial pattern  
of satellite images to produce more accurate results.  
This method has been developed against basic pixel  
methods, which face a severe challenge of spectral  
property similarity. The chief objective of this  
research is to investigate soil salinity and apply a  
unified approach of object-oriented fuzzy to control  
land cover changes in the eastern bank of Lake  
Urmia, which has been influenced by salinity  
Figure 4. Dandruff formation and its mixture with  
lime and clay  
Control of salt dust particles by the non-  
biological method and by blending them with  
lime and clay  
Chlorides are prevalent in marginal areas.  
Because these substances are mainly of aquatic  
origin and are absorbed in large amounts of water.  
There are two main methods of penetration of these  
salts. One is through the ground and with the help of  
upward moisture in the walls. The other is through  
unwanted marine materials that are transported by  
the wind as a spray from the sea.  
How to prevent this problem from  
The first way is to use salt-free sand and  
cement and to use stones in a dry and mechanical  
manner. That is, to pin and screw the stone to the  
building surface. The second method is to use  
washed sand with less salt. Some cities in Iran have  
sweet soil. In fact, no matter how deep we dig, we  
will yet reach sweet soil. These types of soils contain  
the best sand and cement for facade construction.  
After working on your building stone, wash it twice  
with urban water at intervals of 7 to 15 days.  
Figure 5. How to remove dandruff from stones and  
Farzaneh and Akbari Namdar, 2019  
Introducing risk  
Tornado and Tropical Storms  
situation of the building, the height and shape of the  
construction, and the location of the building  
relative to adjacent buildings. The wind force is  
essentially dynamic, but for simpler representation,  
it is used statically. Wind power distribution in  
buildings is in the form of steps and is always  
vertical to the surface [15].  
Figure 6. Stages of formation of tropical storms  
The impact of wind on the body of the  
The effect of salt storms on buildings  
tornado brings different destructions  
The overall effects of wind on buildings are as  
depending on its velocity. How powerful winds  
influence buildings depends on four factors: the  
Pressure in the wind  
Reversal of  
Figure 7. Effect of wind on the building  
The effect of wind on the outer aspects of  
the structure  
Wind-resistant building systems  
Domes, arches, and most shell forms are types of  
Other than the pressure they exert on the side wind-resistant systems. Stabilizing the form against  
exposed to the wind, the winds create suction on the the wind starts with building a big base against  
opposite side and upward force on the roofs overturning. The Transamerica building in San  
Francisco is an instance of this. Another issue is the  
ratio between the height of the building and its  
minimum size at the base, known as the slenderness  
factor. There is also a difference between the  
Slenderness ratio of the building mass and the  
effective slenderness factor, which is obtained from  
the effective structural lateral support mechanism.  
Modern high buildings add to the constraints of this  
slenderness factor. In such tall structures, lateral  
loads are more important than gravity ones.  
The presence of rigid joints, shear walls, and  
braced frames further increase the resistance of  
buildings to lateral forces, like the wind. In addition  
to the lateral support, regardless of its type, the  
bracing tends to move from the center of the floor  
plan to the outside of the building to obtain more  
stability in the structural system when lateral loads  
increase. This practice can be completely seen in the  
John Hancock building in Chicago [16].  
Figure 8. The effect of wind on the external walls of  
the building  
J Art Arch Stud. 8(2): 19-29, 2019  
Tornadoes are a serious menace to buildings and  
inhabitants in many places. The building may be  
"properly built according to the rules," but that does  
not mean it can be protected from harsh events such  
as tornadoes and hurricanes. The answer is a safe  
room or shelter from the wind. Places, where a safe  
room can be built, are the basement, on top of a slab,  
or a concrete garage, or an interior room on the first  
Figure 12. Influence of wind affected by the shape  
of the building  
In spaces where, for reasons such as severe cold  
or heat or extreme dust, the building should be  
protected from very cold or very hot winds, building  
complexes must be designed to be compact to block  
the wind. In cases where high-rise buildings are  
created near the streets, the highest and shortest  
points of the building on the windward front should  
be in the same direction so that the airflow reaches  
the street level.  
Figure 9. The correct location for the safe room  
A safe room built in the basement gives  
maximum protection. But a safe room made in an  
interior room on the first floor cannot be as secure.  
In the basement, the safe room should be designed  
to limit water from accumulating through heavy  
rains. To build a safe room, the following points  
should be minded.  
• Enough size to confront overturning  
Resistance to wind pressure and the  
Figure 13. The highest and shortest points of the  
building on the windward front should be in the  
same direction so that the airflow reaches the street  
penetration of objects in walls, ceilings, and doors  
• Solid connection between all parts of the room  
for wind resistance  
• Safe room walls should be able to be detached  
from the accommodation structure so that damage  
to the accommodation does not harm the safe room  
Site design solutions against salt storms  
It is not always possible to create outside the  
tidal zone. If a house or structure is in the vicinity of  
a tidal wave, methods to reduce tidal and hurricane  
damage should be considered. The best means to  
protect property is to build at a level higher than  
tidal levels. Ideally, all worthy property should be  
secured at a level above the height of the storm tide.  
To this end, one can use the slopes and heights on  
the site and build constructions on the hills or  
behind them (Figure 14).  
Figure 10. How the building is located  
Figure 14. Building the structures on a higher level,  
on hills and heights, and behind the hills  
About the adjacent buildings, cluster and non-row  
layout are favored over row layout to block wind  
Figure 11. Better deployment  
Farzaneh and Akbari Namdar, 2019  
Figure 15. Avoiding wind tunnels in the cluster  
Figure 16. Planting rows of trees to guard  
Planting rows of trees at a distance of 8 to 10  
Elements like fences, cottages, and tiny  
times their height difference with buildings is warehouses and water tanks should be set at  
another approach to decrease the risk. Minding this standard distances on the site, as harsh salt storms  
distance is very critical (Figure 15).  
can maximize the possibility of damaging adjacent  
buildings (Figure 17).  
Not advised  
Figure 17. Avoiding the placement of site elements at non-standard distances from the building  
national blessing will become an irreversible  
environmental catastrophe. With the salinities built  
In this study, while examining the effective factors in around Lake Urmia, salt particles exposed to the air  
the decreased water level of Urmia Lake, soil can be moved by the wind and precipitate on fertile  
salinity, environmental and ecosystem outcomes of lands. As a result, agricultural lands become  
the decrease of water in this lake were studied. unusable. Furthermore, the movement of these salts  
excessive human interventions in the ecological cycle by wind and their precipitation in surface water and  
of the area, such as digging many wells, constructing infiltration into groundwater yields the salinization  
many dams without detailed investigations, of irrigation water. Salinity is one of the harshest  
constructing the Shahid Kalantari bridge, etc., have environmental  
played a notable part in causing this poor situation productivity. The use of Gum Arabic, as well as  
for Lake Urmia. The results of the research show object-oriented image analysis (OBIA) techniques, is  
that with the continuation of this course, the one of the latest techniques of satellite image  
environmental and health hazards of Lake Urmia in processing in the field of remote sensing. This  
the not too far future will change the region and method, which has significant potential in soil  
encircling cities and provinces. As a result, this great science studies, is advised as a solution. Considering  
J Art Arch Stud. 8(2): 19-29, 2019  
the answers to deal with soil salinity, building design  
solutions, and confronting salt storms, we concluded  
that buildings with a circular form have less  
resistance to wind and pass it easily. In areas subject  
to harsh storms, the number and strength of glass  
doors and windows should be ensured. Because  
these parts are quite weak and are one of the most  
critical factors in the storm to enter the house. Since  
different roofs also exhibit different resistance to  
storms, care must be taken in picking them. Still,  
every house needs a safe room that people in the  
home can cover in the case of an emergency. These  
shelters can be made in the basement, above the  
garage, or in a room on the first floor. Additionally,  
constructing houses behind natural barriers such as  
hills in a cluster organization, and planting trees at a  
proper distance around them are some of the  
measures that should be considered. To deal with  
the impacts of salt storms, designs such as dynamic  
capacities, fencing, etc. have been introduced that  
can be employed according to the studied bed.  
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All the authors contributed equally to the work  
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Competing interests  
The authors declare that there is no competing  
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