Elham Ghaffarlu 1 and Shabnam Ghaffarlu2  
Young Researchers and Elite Club, Ilkhchi branch, Islamic Azad University, Ilkhchi, Iran  
ABSTRACT: In today's life, human population growth is accompanied by an increase  
in fossil fuel consumption, which is a major source of conservation in nature. Energy  
conservation is one of the principles of sustainable architecture in which the architect  
is required to design the building in such a way as to meet the building's requirements  
Fossil fuels are minimized, but since the need for unconditional comfort and  
convenience has led to a growing need for energy in the domestic and industrial  
sectors, architects and designers of the building have taken it to meet this need and in  
parallel It considers the protection of the environment and fossil fuels. Today, human  
beings are pushing for better solutions and better solutions. For optimal use of energy,  
the use of intelligent building materials and materials in today's buildings is a timely  
response to changes that make the building more durable and enhances. It is possible  
that the discovery of intelligent materials is practical for architects to use this material,  
which is the most important advantage. They are encouraging the optimization and  
intelligent management of energy. The object of the study is to investigate the present  
research through objective observation. In fact, research has been conducted on the  
basis of a rational method and an analysis and description of the achievement of the  
research objectives. The method and method used are the research of the library  
method and the examination of written documents.  
Original Article  
PII: S238315531900001-8  
Received: 20 Dec. 2018  
Accepted: 15 Apr. 2019  
Published: 05 Jun. 2019  
Corresponding author:  
E-mail: sh-ghaffarlu@gmail.com  
KEYWORDS: Modern Materials, Smart Materials, Reducing Energy Consumption,  
Reducing Environmental Pollution  
and greenhouse gases, and cause less damage to the  
environment and energy and resources [5-8]. At  
Given the increasing population growth in recent  
years, the necessity of removing housing  
construction from the traditional way, and the use of  
modern materials and methods of industrialization  
has become more evident. One of the most  
important parameters affecting the increase of  
productivity in the building industry is the  
possibility of using modern materials and new  
methods of construction in different geographic  
conditions in terms of technical facilities in that area  
[1]. Materials used in buildings have a significant  
role to play in building the right architecture based  
on sustainable architecture and environmental  
protection [2]. Considering the reduction of energy  
reserves in the current situation, the use of modern  
and intelligent materials that are effective in  
reducing energy in buildings is one of the essential  
measures in the field of construction [3, 4]. In fact,  
the selection of modern and appropriate materials  
and equipment will reduce energy consumption and  
further health It contributes to the environment.  
Because of this, the materials reduce the amount of  
fuel consumed in buildings, reduce emissions of air  
present, the problem design and the necessity of the  
research have been addressed and then the goals and  
method of research is used.  
The main objectives of this research is focusing  
architects and designers on the use of modern  
materials in order to reduce energy consumption  
and reduce environmental pollution in the design  
and implementation of the building, it is clear that  
replacing modern materials rather than traditional  
materials will be a major step towards reducing  
environmental pollution. In this research, analytical-  
descriptive method has been used. The method and  
tool used in the research are library method and  
review of written documents. Modern building  
Problem statement and research necessity  
In human life today, population growth is  
associated with an increase in the consumption of  
fossil fuels, which is a major source of conservation  
in nature [9]. Energy conservation is one of the  
Citation: Ghaffarlu E and Ghaffarlu Sh (2019).  
The role of modern building materials in reducing  
energy consumption and environmental pollution.  
J Art Arch Stud, 8 (1): 01-06.  
Journal of Art and Architecture Studies  
ISSN 2383-1553  
J. Art Arch. Stud. 8(1): 01-06, June 05, 2019  
Ghaffarlu and Ghaffarlu, 2019  
principles of sustainable architecture in which the wood) is one of the few woods that will last long  
architect is required It should be designed in such a years into the water without any worries. Due to the  
way that the building's requirements for fossil fuels waterproof nature of the Accoya wood, this product  
are minimized [2]. Nowadays, with the traditional has many applications such as window-to-door,  
materials often used in buildings, it does not meet deck-to-facade and bridges.  
the economic conditions and the density of building  
Extensive research and experiments on Accoya  
of modern cities, and the contradictions created by wood have shown that this unique wood will not  
the impact Negative in terms of energy efficiency, it bring any harm to the environment and will have a  
brings about a long time It is necessary, with the great contribution to the conservation of the  
advent of modern materials that meet the economic environment. The use of Accoya in the woodwork  
and congestion of cities, to deal with energy losses in has  
significant impact on environmental  
buildings and reduce the pollution caused by it for preservation. Due to its endurance and durability,  
the environment.  
Accoya wood is also replaceable with non-resistant  
Accoya wood feature  
Accoya wood uses much less energy in its  
production and use compared to other building  
materials such as cement, glass and aluminum,  
Compared to other materials such as aluminum,  
PVC and tropical hardwood (tropical hardwood from  
unstable forests supply). The Accoya leaves emit less  
greenhouse gas emissions. Accoya wood is more  
durable compared to wood such as Spruce and Red  
Meranti tropical hardwood, which are used as  
construction materials. The price of Accoya wood is  
more economical due to its unique features  
compared to the wood.  
Accoya wood is the result of research and studies  
over 80 years old. As a result of the combination of  
acetic processing and the implementation of the  
exclusive technology of cutting edges, the high  
quality wood produced by the brand Accoya is  
extremely suitable for outdoor applications. One of  
the uses of Accoya as a hinge on the structure is  
different buildings and buildings. This unique wood  
is used in outdoor applications and even in water.  
The wood treated with stelazing technology (Accoya  
Figure 1. Accoya wood  
EQUITONE cement fibers have eating, perforating,  
and eating ability. Fixing methods include rivets,  
screws, glue and invisible fittings on wooden or  
metal frames. Creative architects and designers use  
EQUITONE cement fibers in interior design.  
EQUITONE has a wide range of color spectra, which  
is also suitable for interior design projects.  
It is made of cement fibers and is used in the  
facade of the building. Cement fiber is made of  
cellulose and mineral materials reinforced by a  
matrix, which has a smooth and opaque fog. The  
EQUITONE Moda is manufactured at a maximum  
panel of 125 by 310 cm and can be used comfortably  
in any shape or dimension and in modular form.  
J. Art Arch. Stud. 8(1): 01-06, 2019  
Performance and reliability  
The Rainscreen views made with EQUITONE are  
EQUITONE cement fibers are non-flammable thinner and lightweight, yet highly durable, which  
and have a shelf life of over 50 years (Figure 2).  
reduces energy and raw material consumption.  
Figure 2: Cement fibers  
Wall panel sandwich  
Composite aluminium panel  
It is a kind of building material that has two  
Covering the building with large aluminum or  
layers of electrostatic, scratch-resistant, different aluminum panels of  
mm thick thickness,  
thicknesses and desired lengths in the interior and consisting of two layers of aluminum sheet, and their  
exterior facades, which are used with a grooved inner core made of polyethylene or anti-fire minerals  
monolithic and slit-free design, and the sliding edges and a coating of PVDF resin (Aluminum composite  
during installation make it more beautiful and more Panels) is read.  
robust. The wall is injected between them and used  
to cover the wall is called wall panel sandwich.  
Advantages of aluminium composite panel  
The beauty and luminance of the aluminium  
Advantages of wall panel sandwich  
Moisture and cryogenic insulation, soundproof facade, easy maintenance, sound and sound  
and resistant to moisture, cold weather moisture, isolation, ultra-infinite color variations, superb  
heat, moisture, weatherproof, rust, chemicals, stability and long life in a variety of atmospheric  
vermin, colour variety, washable, hygienic, conditions, the ability to select and execute very  
lightweight sandwich panel and ultimately weight complex levels in the arc, the possibility of All types  
loss, The speed of implementation and reducing the of machining, bending, roof piercing, quick and  
cost of prolonged projects, earthquake resistance, precise installation, excellent strength against  
increasing the life of the building and facilities, and earthquake, resistant to vibrations caused by the  
the ability to move and rebuild it from the sandwich wind and its unwanted sounds, complete setup  
panel wall panel.  
during installation and even after End of  
installation, minimum use of iron and non-contact  
aluminium and iron in the facade Thermal shock  
Wallboard sandwich  
To cover the walls of the cellars, sport niches, resistant, super sky and lower cost than traditional  
prefabricated pre-fabricated suites, villa buildings, materials used in steel building structures.  
sports halls and sports grounds, laboratory rooms  
and food industries.  
Table 1. Comparison of the heat transfer coefficient of the sandwich panel with concrete, brick and fiberglass  
Wall Panel Sandwich  
Thickness (mm)  
heat transfer (K/m2k)  
Ghaffarlu and Ghaffarlu, 2019  
sense of inviting. Shapeshell is made with 3D CNC  
The advanced Shapeshel composite is nowadays and is lightweight. It is resistant to chemical shock  
widely used and increasingly used by architects and chemical, and it is non-conductive. Another  
(Figure 3). Take their imaginative projects. This advantage of this material is its anti-flammability  
unique material is used in the building's exterior as certificate in construction facades and full color  
an external veneer panel, and can be used in rendering of this material.  
commercial buildings as a focal point for creating a  
Figure 3: Shape shell composite  
Vacuum insulated panel  
higher temperatures and preventing the fading of  
By making it possible to create more thin space. Meanwhile, in both cases, the illuminant light  
insulating layers than ordinary insulators, they are is ideal for lighting the space.  
very suitable for construction applications and  
Electrochemical (EC) glass. In this system  
reduce the insulation thickness and consequently the (EC), the glass unit is replaced by transparent films  
thickness of the walls. Compared to traditional of thickness from 200 to 300 nm with varying colour  
insulation materials (polystyrene), the thermal intensities in the visible spectrum from clear to dark  
conductivity of these panels is more than ten times blue. The glass unit is connected to the power supply  
lower, which means that with the help of these for varying the degree of transparency due to the  
materials, with the same thickness as traditional different amounts of heat transfer. After the flow  
insulators, more heat resistance can be created. stops, the optical mode is maintained and there is no  
Brought up In other words, we need a thin layer of need for continuous current. When the glass darkens  
insulation to achieve the same thermal resistance  
used, the thermal radiation decreases and therefore  
Therefore, new insulators have made it possible most of the radiation passes through the infrared  
to achieve the highest thermal resistance with the spectrum.  
thinnest insulating layer possible. The thermal  
transfer of vips is negligible and only about 4.0-5.0.  
The shelf life of the VIP insulation panels is  
Cellulose coating structure  
This type of coating consists of synthetic fibers,  
between 20 to 38 years old and in other cases cellulose, construction resins, mineral contaminants,  
average for 30 to 50 years, which few factors such as resistant pigments, lubricants and other additives  
panel shell integrity, the amount of vacuum created, that are used in the form of dough and with the use  
seamless quality, and installation affect it.  
of flexic acid trowels on the surface. This coating has  
many properties and can in fact be called the best  
and most beautiful alternative to paint and wall  
Smart glass (Figure 4)  
Thermochemical glass. Using thermo- paper. These types of products are commonly  
chemical coatings, you can create a smart glass that referred to as Belek.  
prevents heat from blocking light. The ability to  
cover to change the state between the absorption  
and reflection of light means using the benefits of  
Cellulose coating properties  
It is able to be applied to plaster and mortar in  
solar heating in winter conditions and reflection at order to cover the underlying defects, moisture and  
J. Art Arch. Stud. 8(1): 01-06, 2019  
refrigeration, the high degree of colour variation, important so that the adaptation of the building to  
environmental comfort, washing ability, lack of the changing conditions of the users is consistent  
smell and sensitivity, non-cracking, resistance to with the least cost and time with the new conditions  
weathering, anti-static properties, applicability On and is responsive to a wider range of different needs  
all types of sub-work, high speed performance, fast of the residents. By the supply of intelligent  
and easy repair, fire-retardant, reduced reflection of materials, capabilities and lighting facilities will be  
light, lifespan of high-volume sound (textured provided to engineers and designers. The intelligent  
surface). Cellulose coating properties is a very good element, due to the type of application and strength,  
insulating layer for reducing noise disturbance and can contribute to the design and construction of  
preventing reflection of sound waves. It is buildings. The use of these materials increases the  
remarkably (30% to 50%), which means the life of the building from 50 to 100 years and saves  
environment is acoustic. Lightweight (the weight of the cost of maintenance, which is far more expensive  
this coating is 400-700 gr/m), which is much lighter than construction. And the use of this material can  
than gypsum weight and colour per square meter reduce the negative environmental impacts and  
(17kg to 25kg), which reduces the weight of our bring society closer to sustainable sustainability  
Competing interests  
The author declares that they have no competing  
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