Amir Rishi Jegheh and Ardalan Karimi  
Ilkhchi branch, Islamic Azad University, Ilkhchi, Iran  
Culture and art have come from the very beginning of mankind, along with human life,  
Research Article  
in order to calm down humankind, and what comes out of mind in different arts and in  
different ways. With the advancement of mankind in various arenas and sciences, art,  
in turn, was subject to change and in various parts of the earth's human races, the  
craftsmanship of buildings and handicrafts was made in caves. Meanwhile, art in the  
Middle East from ancient times was the cradle of human civilization and the creator  
and developer of human beings in various fields, including art. From ancient times,  
especially after the arrival of Islam, Iran has witnessed progress in various fields of  
literary culture, especially art and architecture. In addition to the art of building and  
architecture, the creation of motifs in the tiling of mosaics etc. Handmade carpet art is  
one of the characteristics of recognizing the art of the land of Iran, especially the  
territory of Azerbaijan. Tabriz is a Persian carpet garden with the texture and  
development of a variety of carpets in different designs with a fringe in the range and  
worldwide name in different parts of the world. It is worth mentioning that this ancient  
city has an exhibition or museums in which architecture along with art witnesses the  
display of authentic Iranian and Islamic art and architecture. In the post-industrial and  
post-modern era, we are studying and designing the spaces needed for the place. In  
addition to an indicator for the city of Tabriz, we have a very small footprint in  
reducing the heating of the earth and using indigenous and nature-friendly materials.  
PII: S238315531800003-7  
Received: 22 Aug. 2018  
Revised: 30 Nov. 2018  
Published: 15 Dec. 2018  
Corresponding author’s e-mail:  
Museum, Carpet, Naturalism Architecture, Architectural Design  
selected by the World Council for Handicrafts as the  
"World Carpet City" [3].  
One of the phenomenal phenomena in recent years  
is the growing trend of globalization. Our country is  
also seeking to join the World Trade Organization  
(WTO) in order to expand its non-oil exports and  
presence in global markets and is currently a  
member of the Organization's oversight body. One of  
the important industries that should be studied for  
this purpose is the handmade carpet. The export  
competitiveness index of handcrafted carpet 65  
Isfahan silk rings is equal to 0.88, indicating that the  
65 handcrafted silk rings of Isfahan province are in  
competition with the current conditions in the global  
markets. Relative benchmark index is equal to 0.79  
based on unit cost, which is the actual competitive  
advantage in free competition conditions after the  
accession of Iran to the WTO, and represents the  
relative advantage of the province in producing the  
carpet [1]. In the meantime, Tabriz has a special  
popularity. Tabriz Carpet is one of the types of  
Iranian carpets. This carpet is woven in the city of  
Tabriz [2]. This city is one of the most important  
centers of carpet weaving in Iran and its carpets  
have a lot of variety and variety. Tabriz is currently  
Undoubtedly, the existence of a museum as a  
cultural institution in the community is essential.  
The culture of every society is a general concept and  
embraces all the spiritual values and findings of the  
peoples of that society.  
So the heritage culture is any ethnic group that  
has been taken from its predecessors and has been  
transformed into it and has been transmitted to  
subsequent generations. Cultures and civilizations,  
like humans, have three evolutionary stages:  
They have a childhood and adolescence. They  
reach perfection and reach old age and eventually  
disappear. It takes the form of dynamic and  
necessary cultures and civilizations, takes over from  
other cultures, and throws away what is redundant.  
Maribota Speaks in Iran:  
My first attempt at designing and working on the  
project understands the subject. For example, when  
it comes to the museum, first of all I ask myself:  
"What is today's museum?" For me, there is an  
institution with a strong intellectual character.  
Citation: Rishi Jegheh A and Karimi A (2018).  
The use of the naturalism approach in designing  
the Tabriz carpet museum. J. Art Arch. Stud. 7(2):  
Journal of Art and Architecture Studies  
ISSN 2383-1553  
J. Art Arch. Stud. 7(2): 21-27, Dec. 15, 2018  
Rishi Jegheh and Karimi, 2018  
People go to the museum to ask artists and  
artwork. Therefore, the issue of spirituality is the  
Define a museum or display house  
So far, no comprehensive theory of how the  
spirituality that follows the forms of aesthetics [4]. museum is described as a place is not expressed, of  
At behind these forms of aesthetics is a moral course, this does not mean that there is no proper  
tension that must be transmitted. For me, the understanding of what the museum is, because the  
museum today has the same function as the ancient museums that were built and the designs presented  
cathedral, as the cathedral of contemporary world by the various designers each It can be argued that a  
museum without a definite definition can properly  
Such a reflection within the museum creates two address all of the museums, and can be found, and  
heroes. The first hero is the visitor, and the second is each of its specific museums will be discovered and  
the artwork to be discussed at the museum, so I will made available to republic [5].  
divide the space with this view into two seasons:  
The space on which the visitor moves.  
Types of museums  
Mellow atmosphere in which the work of art is  
Museums are categorized in a variety of ways,  
placed (and it should not be influenced by including historic and archaeological museums,  
architectural artwork). outdoor museums, anthropological museums,  
In the next step, while I have not yet done any palaces of museums, science and historical  
lines, I try to search the site for a question. The earth museums, regional museums, museums  
and its condition respond well to us. I ask the earth (Circulation), park museums, museum of weapons  
what it's like to be? After that, the relation to the (military), museum of thinkers (house of artists)  
ground meets the concept, not the architectural historical and archaeological museum: Historical  
form. And what matters to me is the relationship view, representing historical dynasties. Most of these  
between architecture and the environment, not the works are derived from archaeological excavations,  
form of architecture [5].  
representing the culture and the past of the past and  
Humanity has evolved from the earth and has integrating the science, art and knowledge of a  
developed on Earth and in nature. Human nation or a nation. Such museums are also called  
handicrafts are inspired by nature and creation. The mothers. The National Museum of Iran (Ancient  
combination of art and architecture with the use of Iran), the National Museum of Versailles in France,  
naturalism can create a natural art by combining the and the Museum of History in Washington are of  
architectural mind. To emphasize the role of nature this type.  
in the carpet with a construction that reflects this  
role along with the creative architecture of nature.  
Outdoor Museum: By creating these types of  
museums, important findings of the biostatistics can  
So at the beginning of the life, by studying the be made. The time of one scientific excavation of  
naturalistic approach and converting them into archaeology leads to the successful results and the  
signals, we can see a general view of the subject.  
discovery of valuable immovable works and cannot  
The main question now is what is naturalism in be transferred to museums, by providing the  
architecture and how can it be used in designing the necessary conditions and facilities, they provide the  
Tabriz carpet museum?  
The overall aim of this research is to investigate Outdoor Museum. Among these, one can mention  
naturalism in the design of the carpet museum. the Persepolis in Shiraz and the Hegmataneh-  
In this research, it is tried to analyze the Historical Site in Hamadan.  
place for public visibility. This is known as the  
documents using comparative and analytical  
These museums are also common in other  
descriptive methods, and compare them with the countries such as China, Greece and some other  
similar designs and adapt the weaknesses and countries. In the province of Khorasan, the history of  
"Ghatyan" in Goz, which has very beautiful stylistics  
from the Sassanid period, as well as the historic site  
Methodology (data collection in this of "Shaykh" of Neyshabur, can be a good place for  
research) this.  
Anthropological museums: culture, customs,  
beliefs, clothing, and social traditions prevailing in  
In this method, we examine the land in terms of  
its area and its gradients and its topography.  
In the method of analyzing information, we try society. Tehran Museum of Anthropology and  
to quantitatively and qualitatively examine the Ganjali Khan Bath are of this type.  
content in terms of descriptive analysis, comparison,  
cause and effect, and to better design the subject.  
Chamber of Commerce: The building is a  
historical monument that has come from our  
J Art Arch Stud. 7(2): 21-27, 2018  
ancestors, and it expresses the status and manner of inventor of electricity in the United States of this  
life of its owners. There may be historical objects as type. In Iran, the large community of people,  
well as works of art, including painting on the wall, "Master Abolhassan Saba", has become a museum  
plastering, etc. The palace of the museums is usually and includes paintings, publications and personal  
created at the governmental centers, the purpose of belongings [5].  
which is the establishment of these museums to  
showcase the history of the museum as well as the  
study of Sadabad's palaces in Tehran and the Malek  
Abad Moshhad Gardens of these museums.  
Carpet or rug  
Carpet or rug is a woven base from cotton, wool  
and, in some cases, silk, which is usually used to  
Art museums: There are a variety of visual and cover the earth. Since carpets and rugs have always  
aesthetic arts exhibitions and usually have a lot of had beautiful robes, today they are also considered  
visitors, the Museum of Fine Arts in Tehran and the to be decorative.  
Museum of Decorative Arts in Isfahan.  
Museum of Science and Natural Exhibitions:  
Scientific experiments are based on the evidence,  
Tabriz and carpet art  
With regard to the history of carpet in Tabriz, it  
and the natural and historical works and can be said that according to the historic history of  
instruments that cover various plant species, this city, the art of carpet weaving is in fact before  
especially avian species. The Natural History the Safavid era. In the second half of the fifteenth  
Museum of Isfahan and the Museum of Natural century and during the Safavid period, the carpet  
Sciences and Science of Mashhad are of this type.  
turned into a state-of-the-art rural courtyard.  
Local or regional museums: represent the Another important development in the carpet of this  
culture of a region or a particular neighborhood and period was the designs created by the artists of the  
only exhibit historical works and objects of the same court of Tabriz and Herat. Ian Bennet's book "Rugs  
area. The Museum of Susa, Persepolis and Tous and Carpet of the World" finds another comment on  
Museum in Khorasan are of this type.  
the carpet of Tabriz during Safavid times, which is  
Mobile museums: To quickly advance cultural quoted here: "A large number of medallion or  
goals and due to the lack of opportunities in medley chunks that were in the early years of the  
deprived areas and cities. These museum’s exhibit 16th century under the rule of Shah Isma'il I And  
diverse cultures in different places. If this kind of Shah Tahmasb are woven, have a Slavic design and  
museum is enough, it will be very impressive.  
animal and human designs. "In this book, the author  
Park Museums: Because of the various has tried to attribute a number of carpets in the  
dimensions of science and culture, recreational and world's museums to the first half of the sixteenth  
educational attractions, as well as entertainment, century to Tabriz workshops from the 17th century.  
they are of great importance because they display Subsequently, after the Iranian carpet was found  
natural and biological issues closely to the people. abroad, the artisans of Tabriz, with the taste of the  
The important feature of these museums is that the people of Europe and the United States, began to  
general public can benefit from them. There is no weave carpets that were very interesting and took  
museum park in Iran, but it is common in countries the markets of those countries [6]. Tabriz is one of  
like China and North Korea.  
the most important knitting pillars of Iran in carpet  
The cultural, national and historical places like weaving. Carpets, whether those that adorn the  
Ferdowsi's Tomb in Mashhad, the tomb of Attar and world's prestigious museums or are in an  
Khayyam in Neyshabur can be a good place to do so.  
enthusiastic set of collectibles, or those that are on a  
Museums of the Military: The historical process large scale, in the quality of the market, are well-  
of the use of all kinds of military and military liked and well-liked. Compared to the statistics in  
weapons is open to all. These types of objects include Tabriz and its suburbs, in 1966, 16,000 carpet  
combat uniforms, guns and other combat gear.  
workers worked on 32,150 weaver workers. Plus  
The Museum of the Artists (House of Artists) is Several workshops have been working on carpets  
intended to offer artists, writers, inventors and since many years ago. In recent years Tabrizi  
inventors of the community, usually after their knitters have been turning to the production of  
inception in their own homes, and includes personal extremely delicate silk carpets with a range of 50 and  
belongings, tools and works of art, mostly in 60 on a large scale. Such carpets, some of which are  
European countries It is common. Shakespeare's silken, are woven in mostly lacquer and bergamot  
home is the famous English writer and Edison designs, often with beige and light beige colors, and  
Rishi Jegheh and Karimi, 2018  
are used in coloring flowers and patterns of  
magenta, twig and olive [7]. Tabriz Carpets have  
Nature-oriented architecture  
Nature-oriented architecture is not an imitation  
been woven from the smallest to the largest possible style, but an interpretation of the principles of  
size with potted designs, trees, almonds, gardens, nature for the creation of natural forms. Designers  
animals, hunting grounds, Herat, horns, leafs, and architects have been inspired by nature to create  
harpsichord, hangings, craftsmanship and geometric their works. Or organic, not an imitation style, but  
roles. The side texture and the flower is not very an interpretation of the principles of nature to make  
pleasant to Tabriz [2]. Nowadays, Tabriz is known as natural forms. Engineers, designers and architects  
the main focus of the supply of marble carpets in have inspired nature to create their work. An  
Azerbaijan, and the main focus of the naming and elaborate organic architecture is nature and  
naming companies is the Azerbaijani carpet. It is one principles that literally means the connection  
of the most important knitting pillars of Iran in between the building and its surroundings, so that  
carpet weaving. Carpets, whether those that adorn the building is combined with the site. In other  
the world's prestigious museums or are in an array words, the naturalist-oriented philosophy represents  
of enthusiastic collectors, or those that are on a large the harmony and adaptation of nature, man and  
scale and in a commercially viable market and four- place of residence, and the overall composition of  
way, are always lucid and customer-friendly [8].  
the size of the architecture is such that the space  
inside and outside are integrated and integrated with  
nature from nature. Forms are a reflection of the  
Naturalism or naturalism is usually referred to landscape and features of the site, for example,  
as a philosophical belief that only the laws and forces buildings that are in the form of mountains and  
of nature (not the laws and forces of the structures that are in the form of rivers and clouds.  
supernatural) are active in the world and are beyond Architects are interested in imitation of nature not  
the natural world. The followers of this idea are only to find new construction methods but also to  
naturalistic or naturalistic, and themselves find new inspirational sources for expressing  
naturalistic or naturalistic. They believe that the aesthetics [4, 10].  
natural laws that govern the structure and behavior  
The word "organic" is a natural word for  
of the natural world, and the creature universe is the something to happen, but in architecture it has a  
same rules, and is intended to discover and new meaning. Nature-oriented architecture is rooted  
disseminate the natural laws. Note that naturalists in romantic philosophy, and romanticism is literally  
are also referred to those who engage in scientific an artistic and philosophical movement in the late  
research (or education) of nature and the natural nineteenth and eighteenth centuries in the  
world (especially animal and plant sciences), to northwest of Europe that was transmitted to other  
distinguish those with particular philosophical parts of Europe and America. This movement is a  
functions. In this sense, "naturalist" and "eccentric" response to the rationality of modern wisdom. In  
are synonymous with each other. The philosopher this context, all natural forms are dynamic. Organic  
Paul Currents says the best way to describe the architecture can be defined in nine stages: nature,  
nature of the application of material principles, organic, function, elegance, tradition, decorations,  
including the crime and other physical and chemical spirituality, and the third dimension of space.  
properties accepted by the scientific community. According to Frank Lloyd Wright, organic means the  
Moreover, the meaning of naturalism is that the combination of the entire collection, and on organic  
spirit, the ghost, and the gods have no reality. Nature buildings it is believed that architecture should be  
is not a goal. Usually this meaning of naturalism is constructed based on the conditions of time, place,  
called metaphysical or philosophical naturalism. environment and purpose. Consider the Johnson  
God is an aversion to the idea that whatever nature Office Center Wax Designed by Frank Lloyd Wright,  
is and no longer. Believe in gods or gods who have the pillars that climbed upward, beautifully  
created nature. In theology they are also located and expanded, and the upper portions of the rocks such  
they are considered to be disabled by secondary as the lily float on a semi-transparent surface, create  
causes. In the twentieth century, W. W. Kevin and a realm underwater and a memorable atmosphere  
George Stena, along with other philosophers, argued has created [10].  
that the success of naturalism in science meant that  
The nature-oriented architecture comes from a  
scientific methods should be applied in philosophy. cultural tradition that is understandable through  
From this perspective, science and philosophy form British romantic naturalism. The complete  
a continuum [9].  
development of such a British culture in the United  
J Art Arch Stud. 7(2): 21-27, 2018  
States has been characterized by the organic  
Theoretical limitations: Human insights and  
architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright, which gradually thoughts about defining the place of nature and its  
brings about a new idea of the relationship between relation to humans define it above or below the  
humans and the environment The way in which human level.  
architecture should manage relationships is also a  
Both of these factors create the architecture of  
way of striving for the ultimate sense of comfort and different environments in the nature of nature [13].  
ease that lies in organic simplicity. In the  
contemporary era, the use of natural elements in  
residential spaces has become commonplace, for  
All kinds of ideologies related to nature  
Ideology of Controversial Nature (Facing  
example, the presence of water and plants that Nature) (ideology of Confrontation)  
provide a climate that is formed on the basis of  
Ideology of nature (indifferent) (separation from  
regular geometries or the use of natural and native nature)  
materials to reduce the cost of making and achieving  
Nature-oriented ideology (becoming one with  
Contemporary sustainable design has been effective nature)  
Throughout his life on earth, man has (Completion Theory)  
recognized nature as a vital and mysterious source.  
And he always tried to discover all its dimensions,  
including the expression of nature in art. Nature has  
Ideology of Controversial Nature  
The experience has been observed, when one  
always been one of the most important inspirational uses a tool to overcome nature, the tool opens up  
sources of history throughout history. For example, against him and endangers him until the stage of  
the first remains of art in the caves. Aristotle; an destruction. The best example that can be mentioned  
ancient philosopher was one of the first people, who is the use of nature tools to protect humans from  
referred to nature as an inspirational source. natural hazards, to achieve more prosperity and to  
Architects have used natural patterns in different mechanize modern life, which in the same way  
ways in the process of designing a naturalistic irreversibly destroys human life through incidental  
architecture. The application and appropriate audio, visual and the environment [13].  
selection of native and natural materials and their  
application have caused. Those distinct architectures  
Naturalistic practices in carpet museum  
are created with the idea of naturalism. Frank Lloyd architecture  
Wright, Alvarelle, Louis Kahn and Richardson are  
In our world, every new idea is rooted in the  
good examples of architects. This has optimized the discovery of a number of hidden aspects of nature  
quality of the use of natural materials in their that are strikingly apparent through observation and  
projects [10].  
revelation of natural variations.  
1- Optimal use of materials  
Man's relationship with nature in  
The relationship between nature and man in  
2. Maximization of structural power  
3. Maximize the volume of enclosed space  
4- Create the highest ratio of strength to  
architecture is based on architectural design in structural weight  
interaction with nature. Nature means comfort and  
5- Use of stress and strain as the basis for  
tranquillity. If we design a building that has a structural performance  
nature-like behavior that is calm, then we can say  
6. Creating efficient, energy-efficient, well-  
that we have come to interact between architecture insulated and convenient environments without the  
and nature [13].  
need to use external energy.  
7. Creating forms to improve the airway  
Natural restrictions  
Nature, despite its beauty and attractiveness,  
provides two limitations for humans:  
8. Use of materials available on site to build  
9. Use of curved shapes to disperse multi-  
Material constraints: Human beings cannot directional forces  
withstand all the conditions of nature and must  
separate from nature and refer to a different forms  
10. Increase aerodynamic efficiency by structural  
11. No toxic and harmful substances to the  
Rishi Jegheh and Karimi, 2018  
12. Designing structures that can be built by a  
single organism  
Design should create the bridge between nature  
and man. The design of the Carpet Museum of  
In the early part of the 20th century, when Tabriz with  
a nature-oriented approach is a  
Wright's ideas were gradually shaped in its completely climate-oriented and nature-oriented  
buildings, technology was rapidly expanding in construction commensurate with the culture and  
America and America. This advancement in the field identity of Tabriz. The computing design approach  
of architecture was, in theory, very evident. Despite of this complex is such that the building is  
the fact that Wright was opposed to modern considered as part of nature and the surrounding  
technology did not, but he did not consider it to be area, taking into account the context of the  
the ultimate goal. According to Wright, technology is formation of the angles and axes of the building, in  
a means to achieve a higher-level architecture that, order to create a complete harmony with the nature  
to her mind, was an organic architecture. On May and history of the area.  
20, 1953, he described Organic Architecture in  
Taliesin square-paper with the following statement nature is emphasized in the design of this collection  
[14]: to create a direct impact on the enthusiasm of  
1. Nature: Only includes outside environment visitors in feedback with this collection. The form  
like clouds, trees. and pattern of nature retain the type of visual power  
The interaction between humans and space and  
2. Organic: means the integrity and integrity of structure. The facade of the building is made up of  
the components relative to the whole and the whole indigenous materials whose pattern and form make  
a familiar sense of the cult of the visitors of the local  
3. Functional form: Functional performance is traditions. With the interpretation and connection  
not correct, but the combination of form and between the building, nature and man, the concept  
function, and the use of the invention of human of "man and nature" is considered.  
thought in relation to the operation is essential.  
Form and function are one.  
In the design of the interior, the continuous flow  
feature is evident from the design approaches with  
4. Thoroughness: Human thinking and thinking the concept of nature and naturalism. Crossing up  
must form the hard materials of a building in a the winding paths and guiding visitors to the arena,  
pleasant and humane form. As the tree and the trees the showroom, the history hall, the art hall and  
cover their branches, the building must be  
carpet galleries create a variety of experiences. The  
It is in the hands of man, and not in the nature, enthusiasm, and exploration of the building  
forces inspire visitors to fully understand the  
5- Tradition: Adherence and non-imitation of building, and this sense is functional in the body and  
tradition is the basis of organic architecture.  
set of plans.  
6- Decorating: An integral part of architecture.  
The architecture of the detail is like the flowers to CONCLUSION  
the branches of the plant.  
7. Spirit: Soul is not something that is induced There is no doubt that the art of designing and  
into a building, but it should be in it and it extends knitting carpets in Iran has become the full mirror of  
from outside to outside.  
most of Iranian artistic insights throughout history.  
8. Third dimension: Contrary to popular belief, Nowadays, we know that the first sources of carpet  
the third dimension is not width, but thickness and art have been flooded from the foot of this frontier  
9. Space: An element that must be constantly universe from its delicate artifacts. The Iranian  
expanded. The field is a putative foundation in which dialect, including the Tabriz carpet, as  
all rhythms of the building should come from it and manifestation of the paradise of an unbreakable  
flow therefrom. bond with customs, traditions, The culture and  
and, in the history of history, has swept across the  
Wright defines the term "organic architecture" religion of the people of this land have been and has  
with other terms such as dynamic, vital, intricate, been and throughout history, along with the cultural  
and all-embracing, and identifies with these and social changes of the people of this land has  
synonyms the term "organic", which is equivalent to grown and has grown. Here it is worth mentioning  
the Persian "organ". Wikipedia English)  
from the master of art of carpet weaving of Iran, the  
9. Design of the Carpet Museum of Tabriz with late Razam Arabzadeh in the Quarterly Journal of  
Art We promise them; an oath that whispered the  
Mahjouri's art of carpet weaving; All, the mother of  
J Art Arch Stud. 7(2): 21-27, 2018  
[4] Parvizi M and Karami I (2015). Principles of Islamic  
aesthetics in the physical and spatial structure of  
Iran's banana (Case study: Tehran carpet museum),  
National Iranian Architecture and Urban Planning  
Conference, Rasht, Payam Noor University of Guilan  
all the traditional arts of this land, with all the words  
of his fertility and survivor, and the great hadeeth of  
love hidden in his womb, is so obscure and obscure.  
Tabriz, as a carpet garden in Iran, deserves a  
museum to showcase this art to the world. Beside  
this exhibition, attention will be given to naturalism  
and inspiration from our nature in the design of  
nature. By studying design records, we need to come  
up with a general conclusion about the design and  
creation of such a space.  
[5] Safari T, Acharya S, Urano S (2011). Inventors;  
Kubisys Inc., assignee. Processing requests in virtual  
computing environments. United States patent US  
[6] Goswami KK (2018). Developments in handmade  
manufacture (pp. 213-268). Woodhead Publishing.  
[7] Karimi Azari AR and Obshdar A (2014). Analysis of  
the role of color and light in the transfer of  
architectural concepts of carpet museums as the  
Persian carpet identity, International Conference on  
At the end, it is necessary to give thanks to the  
Islamic Azad University Ilkhchi branch. This  
article is summarized from Thesis of first author in  
this university.  
Infrastructure, Permanent Conference Secretariat .  
[8] Nasiri M (2010). Immortal legend of Iranian carpet.  
Mirdashti Cultural Center Publication, Tehran, Iran.  
Competing interests  
The authors declare that there is no competing  
[9] Retrieved from Persian Wikipedia website, (2018)  
[11] Breheny M (1993). Planning the sustainable city  
region. Town & Country Planning. 62(4):71-5. Google  
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