Sina Sattari Sarbangholi1 and Mohammad Reza Pakdelfard  
1PhD student of Architecture, Architecture Department, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, Tabriz, Iran  
2Assistant Professor, Department of Architecture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran  
ABSTRACT: Man, who is an innate being, needs a place to communicate with his  
Creator, which has celestial and spiritual characteristics that make it possible to  
experience the ascension of the soul and its connection to the eternal universe. Among  
Review Article  
the divine religions, Islam has given the most importance to the social aspect of  
worship, the place that has made this serious matter possible is of great importance.  
PII: S238315532000006-9  
Therefore, mosques have a high status, they are the beating heart of Islamic cities and  
the most important and best places should be provided for mosques. The first step  
taken by the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) after the formation of his government in  
Medina was the construction of the Quba Mosque, which became the original model of  
all mosques. In addition to the Islamic spirit, this mosque also had an Islamic identity  
because it had an Islamic body. The religion of Islam reincarnated the Islamic spirit  
into the body of Iranian structures upon its arrival in Iran. It is a fact that the newborn  
replaced the spirit of buildings and inelegance (Zoroastrian temples and shrines). That  
is, the Islamic spirit flowed in the Iranian vessel. Many mosques that were not built on  
fire temples and shrines retained the same Iranian body with Islamic spirit, so the  
Iranian identity was represented in the form of mosques.  
Received: 19 Aug. 2020  
Revised: 11 Dec. 2020  
Published: 15 Dec. 2020  
Corresponding author:  
Sina Sattari Sarbangholi  
E-mail: sina.sattari89@gmail.com  
KEYWORDS: Islamic Art Wisdom, Mosque, Islam, Iranian Architecture  
of the soul. Plato is also one of the thinkers who,  
while rejecting the sensory view of art, has a negative  
Wisdom literally means a kind of solid work which is  
flawless. Wisdom means a verdict, a verdict that is  
immutable, and a firm verdict that is inviolable in  
rational knowledge. Some people consider wisdom  
to mean science and knowledge and a manifestation  
of philosophy and mysticism, but it should be known  
that wisdom is different from philosophy, but  
mysticism can be placed in the realm of wisdom. In  
fact, wisdom is based on intuitive and acquired  
sciences, and a sage is one who recognizes the truth  
and learns the Shari'a sciences, the Tariqa sciences,  
and the truth and argument. The wisdom of religion  
and law is the God who has no limits. A sage can be a  
Muslim, a Christian, a Jew, and a follower of any  
religion or profession. Perhaps it can be said that the  
sage can master all the sciences and use them to  
reach the truth. Socrates is one of those thinkers who  
reject knowledge in its sensory sense. According to  
him, people should seek virtue and wisdom instead  
of personal interests. In fact, Socrates' view of  
wisdom is insight into the truth that is good for  
human beings and leads to the health and harmony  
view. He believes that the artist imitates nature with  
a sensory vision. Plato's view of wisdom is a kind of  
deep knowledge of the universe and truth. Aristotle,  
a student of Plato's school, struggles with sensory  
perceptions like his professors, and acquires the  
concept of wisdom in this path. In fact, Aristotle  
equates wisdom and understanding of the  
supernatural. Aristotle believes that "a philosopher  
or lover of wisdom is one who seeks knowledge  
about the ultimate cause and nature of things and  
reality and wants knowledge for knowledge itself. In  
his view, wisdom discusses the principles and  
primary causes of things, and therefore general  
knowledge is at the highest level, and wisdom is the  
farthest science from the senses, the most abstract,  
and therefore the most difficult science, since it  
requires the most thought". Ibn Sina considers  
wisdom mainly as a way to understand the truth of  
facts and believes that through it, man achieves  
everything in the world. Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi, the  
founder of theoretical mysticism, considers the  
evolution of the soul. Mulla Sadra, the philosopher  
Citation: Sattari Sarbangholi S and Pakdelfard MR  
(2020). Understanding the concepts of Islamic wisdom  
and its effects on the formation of mosque architecture. J.  
Art Arch. Stud., 9 (2): 39-44.  
Journal of Art and Architecture Studies  
ISSN 2383-1553  
J. Art Arch. Stud. 9(2): 39-44, Dec 15, 2020  
Sattari Sarbangholi and Pakdelfard, 2020  
of the reconciliation of reason and love, considers  
Islamic architecture; the border of art  
wisdom as a special method that leads the human and spirituality  
soul to excellence in order to achieve the highest  
degrees of happiness.  
Few people can be found who set foot on an  
Islamic building and do not drown in its infinite  
space. They are all manifestations of the  
supernatural in nature. In Islamic art, nothing  
The wisdom of Islamic architecture  
Spiritual teachings and cultural beliefs are the should separate the distance between man and the  
foundation of a valuable and dynamic architecture. unseen presence of God. That is why the direction of  
Therefore, recognizing the glorious achievements of mosques in any part of the world is towards the  
Islamic architecture will not be possible without Qaba. That is, the direction is beyond the place  
knowing the basics of thought and social where it is built. Thus the concept of time for such a  
infrastructure. Those who unconsciously call Islamic building whose direction is out of place is different  
architecture independent of spirituality and wisdom, from countable time. This is where Islamic art is tied  
subconsciously block the path of its progress and to spirituality [6].  
excellence. In order to better understand this  
evolutionary process, it should be borne in mind that  
"the ancient and mysterious architecture of Iran  
The wisdom of mosque architecture  
Architecture is one of the Islamic arts that  
cannot be understood without the literature and incorporates the identity characteristics of Islam and  
culture of the people who retained its clay and color" has almost all the characteristics of religious art. In  
Islamic lands, houses were built to suit the short life  
of human beings. For the architecture of houses,  
more attention was paid to the logical functions of  
Pure Iranian architecture and wisdom  
Islamic architecture is one of the greatest the building than to its immortality, and perhaps  
manifestations of the emergence of an artistic truth this is why the houses of the past are remained less,  
in the material body. Islamic architecture, as one of except for a few that are also spiritually protected,  
the largest branches of Islamic art, has been able to such as Fatimah's house (PBUH) in Medina or the  
institutionalize a large part of the characteristics of house of Imam Ali (PBUH) in Kufa, which again has  
Islamic art in the context of time and during been maintained by the spiritual wisdom of the  
different periods. Historically, architecture is the building. But the houses of God have been separated  
first art that adapts its ability to artistic concepts and from this. God Himself is eternal, so His place of  
is used by Muslims. The acceptance of Muslims to worship must also be eternal. For this reason, in  
this art caused it to introduce Islamic religious Islam, the architecture of mosques has been given  
concepts as the only Islamic for years art. This went much importance and the architecture of mosques is  
so far that for most people, when hearing the word adorned with the most beautiful arts. In fact,  
Islamic art, the first thing that comes to mind is mosques are a manifestation of Islamic art [7].  
Islamic architecture [4].  
Although many other methods of Islamic  
Judicial view of the architecture of God's  
architecture have been greatly influenced by houses  
indigenous and historical characteristics, Iranian  
Islamic art is a legal art. The only knowledge  
Islamic architecture is one of the most important that can understand and express Islamic art is  
and successful schools of Islamic architecture. wisdom. Architecture and related decorations have a  
Because over the years, it has shown an upward very strong place in Islamic arts. The basis of Islamic  
trend and an evolutionary process of happiness. The architecture is based on wisdom. The wisdom of  
methods of Iranian architecture have each Islamic architecture, especially the architecture of  
complemented the methods of their predecessors mosques, can be studied in both external and  
and have evolved over the years without the slightest internal dimensions. All the requirements and  
disturbance. The geographical location of Iran has functions of mosques are wise both outwardly and  
been very effective in this regard because on one inwardly. It is also possible to observe the outward  
hand, Iranians were among the first tribes to convert and inward wisdom of the architecture of mosques  
to Islam and on the other hand, many other nations in terms of the use of the symbol, physical and  
and countries have achieved this success through functional functions, and the outward and inward  
Iran. The expansion of geography and cultural characteristics of the constituent parts of the  
richness of the Iranian people has also been very building. The historical course of mosque  
effective in this regard [5].  
J Art Arch Stud. 9(2): 39-44, 2020  
architecture itself illuminates the existence of relax in the azure space of the mosque, is a tool to  
wisdom in its transcendent meaning [8, 9].  
manifest the esoteric meaning of the mosque. The  
inscriptions always remind the praying man of God  
Mosque, the manifestation of the wisdom and manifest the true meaning of the Qur'an in his  
of Islamic art  
mind so that he understands the incomparable  
Muslim artisans and artists, due to the spiritual power of God. The patterns and decorations create a  
function of the mosque, use all their efforts and harmonious melody and rhythm that is very useful  
creativity to make the mosque more beautiful and for understanding the spiritual state of the mosque.  
stronger. Paying attention to the philosophy of the In general, it should be acknowledged that mosques  
mosque and its status in the sight of God caused are in the highest position of Islamic art and have  
artists to pay special attention to this holy place. Due always occupied the minds of a large number of  
to the main function of the mosque, which is the artists and put their taste, initiative and creativity  
closeness of the servant to the Creator, it is very into action, so that the greatest masterpieces of  
necessary to pay attention to the philosophical Islamic art or mosques or arts themselves are  
principles and foundations of Islamic art. As stated affiliated with Islamic mosques.  
in the discussion of sacred art, Islamic art, in  
addition to the artist's freedom to use his creativity,  
Judgmental view on the architecture of  
has strict limits and rules that not only do not block God's houses  
the way for the Muslim artist; They rather, open the  
Islamic art is a legal art. The only knowledge  
window to a world that is much more beautiful and that can understand and express Islamic art is  
valuable than the tangible world. Early Islamic wisdom. Architecture and related decorations have a  
mosques were very simple and unpretentious very strong place in Islamic arts. The basis of Islamic  
mosques with a rectangular plan and a columned architecture is based on wisdom. The wisdom of  
nave without any decoration, but with the growth Islamic architecture, especially the architecture of  
and geographical development of Islam and the mosques, can be studied in both external and  
creation of social security and stability in the Islamic internal dimensions. All the requirements and  
regions and the growth and prosperity of its functions of mosques are wise both outwardly and  
economy, elegant decorations were added to the inwardly. It is also possible to observe the outward  
structure of the mosques which helped a lot in and inward wisdom of the architecture of mosques  
expressing the esoteric meaning of the mosque in the in terms of the use of the symbolic, physical and  
form of its material appearance. Special attention to operational functions, and the outward and inward  
mosques and their decorations caused mosques to characteristics of the constituents of the building.  
shine as a jewel in Islamic art. However, issues such The historical course of mosque architecture itself  
as climatic conditions, geographical location and illuminates the existence of wisdom in its  
cultural conditions prevailing in each region created transcendent meaning.  
a special form of mosque architecture.  
The structure of the mosque is designed and  
built in an excellent and spiritual way. The floor of  
Sacred art  
Sacred art is an art that, in addition to having a  
the mosque is paved with the most beautiful and religious spirit and content, has a religious body and  
best stones. The use of decorations including form, that is, it also has a religious identity. The  
Marquetry tiles, seven-color and enamel tiles, and facade is built in such a way that it is not different  
the use of beautiful Stuccos on the walls of from other non-religious arts. Burckhardt  
courtyards and Shabestans are reminiscent of God's exaggerates the symbolism of sacred art and believes  
paradise. The use of the best decorations in the his explanation. Sacred art has a special expression  
sanctuary of the mosque, the most pioneering part both in terms of form and meaning, and handicrafts  
towards the Kaaba of God, shows its importance are one of the fields of communication of this form  
and, in simpler language, a collection of artistic and meaning. Therefore, a religious theme that is  
creations in the construction of the house of God. All realistic, such as Renaissance art, cannot be a  
this is to create a ground for the discovery of religious art because it lacks cryptography and  
intuition so that the Muslim man can feel peace and specific stylistic allusions; it gives meaning to  
beauty in the house of God. Gathering Quranic religious art [10].  
books in a very concise and effective way with Kufic,  
Thuluth and Naskh scripts, which invites the eye to  
Sattari Sarbangholi and Pakdelfard, 2020  
A) Characteristics of sacred art:  
the outer space with an element called the courtyard.  
Art is like a strong weapon in the hands of The introverted space pays attention to the inside  
believers that has the power of transformation and from all sides.  
can move people and make them strive to move [11].  
• True art is directive.  
Mosque architecture from the beginning of  
Islam (when the Messenger of God built the first  
mosque) to the present time and also mosques with  
• Moves and glides people towards infinity  
• True art is committed and responsible to social new architecture have more or less had these  
• Does not remain indifferent to oppression  
manifestations of wisdom. Sometimes these  
manifestations of wisdom are highlighted, and  
• Makes a person move against the oppressors sometimes diminished, which depends on the  
and exploiters  
political, social and economic conditions of society.  
• True art seeks to fill social gaps  
• True art helps us to develop our talents  
C) Judicial view of the appearance and  
• Committed art tries to find a way in which a interior of the house of God:  
person achieves happiness  
The mosque is a manifestation of intuition.  
• Committed art creates creation, Love of God Intuition is the perfect truth that manifests itself in  
revives love for people in hearts.  
various forms. This semantic intuition can be seen in  
the faces of many pious people. There are semantic  
• Eliminates anger and hatred  
• Committed art is creative and reveals the beauties in behavior and speech that give all the  
hidden [12].  
scent of the perfection of truth, and this perfection  
certainly brings beauty with it, because every truth is  
B) The course of wisdom in the beautiful. In fact, art is a kind of truth since truth is  
architecture of the house of God:  
always accompanied by beauty. Of course, a perfect  
The art of architecture, especially the truth is beautiful. In other words, the perfection of  
architecture of the mosque, has always had great truth is beautiful.  
wisdom throughout history. As mentioned in the  
previous sections, in a general summary, the  
D) Judicial view on the functions of the  
manifestations of wisdom in architectural works can house of God:  
be divided as follows:  
One of the manifestations of wisdom in the  
1- Meeting human needs to create a shelter for structure of architectural buildings is their function.  
life and a place for solitude and worship and other The existence of the function of the building and  
2- Paying attention to the comprehensiveness of sign of a very wide wisdom in the history of human  
the building according to human needs; architecture. Man has always sought to meet his  
thinking about meeting the existing needs has been a  
3- Paying attention to the element of democracy, needs, one of these needs is architecture and shelter.  
i.e. having a human scale in different elements of From the creation of man until now, he has sought  
to meet needs and achieve peace and comfort and  
4- Paying attention to the element of self- has tried in this way. The construction of temples  
sufficiency, meaning that the architect and builder and shrines is also one of the inherent and natural  
try to provide the required materials from the needs of human beings; Because man has a God-  
nearest places and at the lowest price.  
seeking nature and seeks to reach the truth. So to  
5 - Avoiding futility in the sense that the meet this need, he worships God. The god of man  
architect and builder try to avoid useless elements was once made of stone and wood, once in the realm  
and components. In fact, this principle of of stars and celestial bodies, and once sought among  
architecture existed before Islam and has also been the myths. But eventually, with the advent of the  
considered after Islam.  
prophets and their guidance, the man found the true  
6- Module, which was used to observe the God, that perfect truth, thus he needed a place to  
proportions in classical Greek and Roman worship. Of course, temples existed before the  
architecture, and is a means of adjusting the advent of the prophets and among all tribes, and this  
dimensions, size and geometry of the architectural issue itself indicates the natural need of man to  
guide in ensuring relations and principled harmony.  
worship, and the God-seeking nature of man always  
7- Introversion means placing architectural seeks the truth. Therefore, the need led to the  
organs and constructing external walls, which construction of temples. With the advent of Islam,  
enables the direct connection of the building with the need for a place to hold prayers and worship God  
J Art Arch Stud. 9(2): 39-44, 2020  
led to the construction of the first mosque in Medina CONCLUSION  
by the Holy Prophet.  
Grand mosques were the best mosques in any The relics and buildings left over from the behavior  
city. These mosques were located in the city center of their predecessors are the most useful tools in re-  
and most of them were built next to the bazaar and reading  
the Government House. The most important foundations of Islamic architecture. Iranian  
function of the grand mosques of each city was to architecture is the result of the spiritual view of our  
hold Friday prayers. In every city, prayers were held benevolent ancestors, so any time these works are  
only on Friday noon at the Grand Mosque. So these re-examined, it can pave the way for the discovery of  
mosques were mostly built in terms of size, since hidden concepts in its body; Concepts that have  
they could accommodate  
a large number of emerged from Iranian and Islamic spiritual  
worshipers, depending on the city in which they are teachings and have been expanded in material form.  
located. The courtyard of the Grand Mosque was an One of the most important teachings of Islamic  
open space that, in addition to accommodating a architecture is annihilation in God. The connection  
large number of worshipers, made the worshiper feel between the arts is a field that can lead the various  
closer to the sky and remember the extent of divine components of the universe to a transcendent unity.  
In the golden age of Islamic architecture in Iran, this  
One of the most important functions of mosques unity and harmony has not crystallized in the ideal  
is the educational function. In Islam, there has state. For example, we can refer to the construction  
always been a lot of emphasis on education and of Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque in Isfahan. In this  
training, and Muslims have paid attention to this mosque, what we find in painting is what we see in  
issue since the early years of Islam. The mosque has the ruling Eslimi scripts, and what is seen in  
been the main base of education in Islamic society. appearance is what is felt inside the walls. Most  
After or before the daily prayers, question-and- important of all, what is seen inside the building is  
answer sessions were held in mosques, and young the same as what we see outside.  
Muslims sat around the master and used his lessons.  
With the passage of time and the growth and  
development of Islamic societies, as well as the  
Competing interests  
The authors declare that they have no  
greater attention of Muslims to education, these competing interests.  
sessions were transferred to schools so that the  
resulting controversies of those circles of education  
would not disturb the worshipers.  
One of the important functions of mosques is its  
social work function. From the beginning of Islam  
until now, the mosque was the place and home of  
hope for the needy, the afflicted and the travelers  
who were strangers in that city. For this purpose,  
places were built in many local mosques to help this  
group of people. Using verses with Quranic  
meanings and the theme of charity and helping the  
needy in the form of inscriptions in every corner of  
the mosque is a kind of response to this need of  
society and is itself a manifestation of wisdom in  
building Islamic mosques. The existence of a stone  
pool of water in the center of the courtyard of the  
mosque for purification and ablution shows the  
existence of great wisdom in the construction of the  
components of the mosque. This pool of water, in  
addition to providing the water needed for ablution,  
is a symbol of purity and clarity of the heart of the  
worshiper. Water is a sign of purity and mercy, the  
presence of which adds to the sanctity and purity of  
the mosque.  
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